Colloidal Silver An Analytical Investigative Report and Theoretical Overview

Colloidal Silver An Analytical Investigative Report and Theoretical Overview
(Revised 2010 Version)
By Vince Goetsch © 1997- 2010 Synergenesis, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Taken from

» Preamble And Introduction

After many years of research regarding the subject of colloidal silver, there is much that I have to share based on my personal experience. As I contemplated what it is I would like to say here, I decided that among the most important things I could share is a perspective that brings clarity with regard to aspects of this topic that heretofore have been a source of confusion.

The history and many facets regarding colloidal silver is long and complex, at the time of this writing it spans more than 100 years. No single work can provide a truly thorough treatment of this subject, although there is a lot of information here covering every base is beyond the scope of this work. I will be writing more on the topic of colloidal silver, including theoretical dosing for serious researchers, based on my 17 plus years of field and investigative research. Sign up for the newsletter if you want to be notified when such material becomes available.

In any case, we hope you will find the following perspectives useful and informative.

There is little doubt that from a historical perspective, the primary use in the late 1800s and 1900s was with regard to medical treatment.

When the FDA was formed, previously established medical treatments, when they were well established as safe and effective prior to the formation of the FDA, were then grand fathered into the accepted pharmacopoeia.

During the early days after the formation of the FDA, colloidal silver received the designation of being a pre-1938 drug, because it had been widely used for many medical purposes since the early 1900s, and because such medical use was well documented and established prior to the formation of the FDA. Thus colloidal silver was grand fathered into the USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) as a pre-1938 drug, acceptable for use in medical treatment by physicians.

In the early 1900s there were many products that were marketed by manufacturers and pharmaceutical suppliers which they labeled and sold as colloidal silver, but most of these products were not actually colloidal silver. Obviously this caused confusion for the M.D.'s during that time who prescribed treatment, and explains why there is inconsistent and conflicting documentation from that time with regard to many medical, research and related material from that time.

During the early 1900s colloidal silver was quite expensive. The pharmaceutical manufacturers and suppliers of that time all wanted to take part in the profits, and whether it was incompetence or opportunistic inclinations, they advertised their varied products as colloidal silver even when they technically were not.

During the early 1900s, of the more than 100 products on the market and sold as colloidal silver, only a few of them were actually what is a scientifically correct designation to be called colloidal silver.

For instance the most popular product sold by suppliers of that time, was actually a silver-nitrate compound. It was bottled and sold as colloidal silver. Because it was both more affordable for customers and more profitable to sell, due to it being less technical and cheaper to make than actual colloidal silver. As a result of silver nitrate's popularity, combined with it erroneously being called colloidal silver, in effect silver nitrate stole colloidal silver's identity.

Silver nitrate compound was very easy to manufacture compared to true colloidal silver, and because the most popular pharmaceutical companies could sell it cheaper, this became a big deal during World War I, the Depression and World War II when affordability was paramount.

The result of these factors coming together, is that a large number of people during that time came to believe that silver nitrate was colloidal silver, when actually it was a cheaper alternative. Unfortunately silver nitrate which will instantly stain the skin if you get it on you, in terms of using it for medical treatment, also came with the nasty side-effect of causing argyria. Argyria is a condition caused especially by silver-nitrate, when taken in sufficiently high doses,which then causes a permanent silver-gray tone to the skin.

The professional literature that established protocols for the use of colloidal silver, at times called for larger volumes of actual colloidal silver, which as the literature describes, did not induce argyria when actual colloidal silver was used. A problem arose when physicians and clinicians mistakenly adopted and applied a protocol for colloidal silver and instead used silver nitrate under the innocent error of not realizing that silver nitrate was not really the colloidal silver described in the protocol. It is not difficult to see how this confusion became a problem.

During the early 1900s researchers wrote entire books regarding colloidal silver toxicity, which primarily concerned argyria. When these books are carefully reviewed, it becomes clear that what these writer/researchers were primarily documenting was the effects of silver nitrate compound. This is easily confirmed because silver nitrate is what is specified in the literature itself in the technical data. What is most troublesome about this occurrence is that it is those same toxicology books that are still being referenced with regard to colloidal silver still today.

I think it is important to point this major flaw out, because the resulting confusion did not merely effect the literature and research of that era, in fact the most common references with regard to toxicology still reference those very books from the early 1900s, that had made the basic error just described. Thus those errors are being repeated and carried forward to the present time and fostering confusion.

In fact the literature of that time frame, when carefully scrutinized, bears witness to the fact that most M.D.'s and researchers struggled with the difficulties just mentioned. Our library of early 1900s books regarding colloidal chemistry and medical use documentation repeatedly bear testimony to this fact.

The error of equating silver nitrate in particular with colloidal silver became so entrenched within the literature of the 1900s that this misunderstanding is still being perpetrated, in particular within material written that addresses the issue of toxicology.

In terms of the medical profession in the early 1900s, they were not usually chemists. What they knew is that in attempting to prescribed treatment involving the many and varied colloidal silver products, they observed that results were inconsistent. Over-time, the attitude developed within the general medical community, that the use of colloidal silver yielded sporadic results and that the risk of argyria did not outweigh other treatment options.

With the availability of affordable antibiotics, that also had consistent treatment results. Unencumbered with the cost and misunderstandings associated with colloidal silver, lead to a decline in medical use of colloidal silver, as an antibiotic in particular.

Silver was used and still is, as the treatment of choice in burn-centers. A standard in the treatment of burns is the use of Silver Sulfadiazine There are many other examples of continued medical use, but you get the picture generally speaking.

Fast forward to 1997 when the FDA revisited the issue of pre-1938 drug status for colloidal silver. The FDA reengaged the subject of colloidal silver because it had reemerged and was popularized as an antibiotic alternative by distributors and manufacturers.

Such widespread use was primarily among the alternative health community in particular. The FDA documentation states that numerous people were marketing colloidal silver that had product labeling and literature that made unsubstantiated medical claims.

Beginning in 1997 through 1998, after a review process, the FDA issued updated rulings regarding colloidal silver. These new FDA rulings established that; colloidal silver is no longer legal in OTC products. OTC (over the counter use) meaning in essence that it is not to be marketed nor used for medical treatment or medicinal purposes. The grand fathered pre-1938 drug status previously applied to colloidal silver by the FDA was then removed nearly 60 years later.

If there had been a USP form of colloidal silver in production and use at the time of those rulings, then perhaps the grandfather status may not have been removed. Because there would have been a business entity that could explain and defend a commercial interest in a USP form of colloidal silver.

There were plenty of manufactures of colloidal silver, and although they may have met proper FDA GMP (good manufacturing practices) the USP designation was lacking.

The last company to produce a USP form of colloidal silver had ceased production in the 1970's, thus the technical presumption was that the grandfather status had been in essence, abandoned. At least this is what I have gathered by reading the actual FDA rulings themselves.

The FDA rulings continued to allow colloidal silver to be sold and marketed as a dietary supplement.

It would be easy to write one or more books dedicated specifically to just the topic of historical medical use and related research up to present, it is my intention to do that at some point, for now we must move on.

Although the medical use in terms of the history of colloidal silver, is fascinating, and because it is what got me interested in this subject in the first place, it is easy for me to see how some people think of it mostly in these terms. However, that is really just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the bigger picture with regard to the potential applications and practical uses of colloidal silver.

Despite the fact that the primary focus has been placed on the medical and dietary purposes of colloidal silver, in the last few decades many other uses for colloidal silver have been well researched and in many cases has resulted in very unique materials and products, many of which have been made commercially available.

It should not be assumed that there is only one use for colloidal silver, because there are virtually thousands of known, recognized as potential uses, as well as an unknown number of yet to be discovered uses.

For example, viable uses include: nano-circuits, nano bots, light emitting screens, super-conducting materials, data-storage, food production, ultra-efficient lighting, disinfectants, bio-weapon remediation, ground water remediation, municipal water purification, cloning, DNA research to name some major categories. There are many more areas of research as well as practical applications that have been or are being developed. Much of that research is closely-held, quiet or lacking in public disclosure, as seems to be the case these days with all research that holds the potential or promise of large profits or other strategic advantages.

When reviewing this topic as a whole, one of the main problems is that each area of expertise which involves the term colloid, usually has a well developed highly specialized system and jargon, that does not always translate well between other disciplines. Quantum mechanics, Physics, colloidal chemistry etc. each has within that general area of study, highly specialized areas of focus and often by virtue of practical-necessity develops customized usage of otherwise common terms.

For illustration, consider "Electro-chemistry in colloids and dispersions" which is a specialized field of study within the field of colloidal chemistry. The clearly defined concepts and jargon within this particular specialization are well established, yet the terms and concepts used therein may not so easily intermingle with other areas of colloid specialization.

For example the meaning of what the term "colloidal state" represents to those who are formulating self-leveling concrete as a colloidal material, may not bring to-mind the same meaning of what "colloidal state" is to someone creating nano-circuits from very specific sized nano clusters of colloidal metals.

Individually we can avoid most of the potential pitfalls that can occur technically speaking, by first grasping the fundamental concepts involved, while at the same time nurturing our own cognitive critical thinking.

Then information can become understanding, and applied understanding can foster creativity. Understanding combined with creative experimentation that succeeds when previously believed to be impossible, it is called genius.

» Explanation Of What A Colloid Is

Colloids and colloidal systems, whether you know it or not, are already an integral part of, and profoundly effect virtually every aspect of your everyday life. All living organisms contain colloidal matter including us.

Many industries employ colloidal technologies, such as paper mills, electronic component manufacturing, geology, pharmacology, dietary product manufacturers, the nutraceutical industry,food & beverage industries, oil and gas refining, Polymer manufacturing,textiles, water purification, ceramics manufacturing, aerospace, etc.

Many things involve the colloidal state. For example, blood is literally a colloidal system. The colloidal state is also present in; human cells, animal cells, plant cells and pathogens all contain colloidal matter. Many products contain colloidal particles or are in a colloidal state, clay used as casting slip in ceramics, polymer latex, photographic materials, nano particles, emulsions, micro-emulsions, liposomes, paints, inks, cosmetics and toiletries, self leveling concrete, beverages, food preservatives, food additives, personal care products, agrochemicals, colloidal minerals, food macromolecules, pharmaceutical preparations just to name a few generalizations.

Colloids are a prominent component of many of the everyday items you already use. Colloidal particles derived from food, supplements, water and beverages become the cells that collectively comprise your whole physical body.

Colloidal technology is a multidisciplinary science that involves aspects of physics, chemistry & mathematics. Depending on the industry and application, other sciences such as biology as well as geology may be involved. Colloidal science as it is practically applied is interdisciplinary and usually requires a working knowledge of the "colloidal system" and sciences involved as a whole.

The term colloidal is used interchangeably to mean many things to many different specialists who apply this term rather selectively to describe the colloidal state of matter within different industries. Different substances have different physical attributes in different dispersion mediums, and different size particle clusters of the same element or substance often have completely different attributes to clusters of different sizes, even in the same dispersion medium.

Physics and chemistry as colloids are concerned, always involves three states of matter - gas, liquid and solid. The colloidal state is sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter, and rightly so, in some cases, in our opinion.

A colloidal system can be defined as a gas, liquid or solid that is finely dispersed into a separate substance, or in common jargon, a separate medium. The medium will also be a gas, liquid or solid.

Normally it is presumed that particles are only considered to be in a colloidal state, when they are dispersed into a liquid (dispersion medium). The dispersion medium that the particles are in can be anything from water, oils to organic solvents.

Jerome Alexander (1876-1959) was the pre-eminent American scientist in the field of colloidal chemistry, the study of substances neither in suspension nor solution , which was pertinent to many other areas of chemistry .

Definition of a colloid

Colloidal systems are comprised of a (disperse phase) i.e., uniformly distributed finely-divided-particles in a dispersion medium (the continuous phase).

COLLOID — { coined by Thomas Graham ( 1805-69 ) Scot. chemist }
A solid, liquid, or gaseous substance made up of very small, insoluble, non diffusible particles (as single large molecules or masses of smaller molecules) that remain in suspension in a surrounding solid, liquid, or gaseous medium of different matter. A state of matter consisting of such a substance dispersed in a surrounding medium. All living matter contains colloidal material, and a colloid has only a negligible effect on the freezing point, boiling point, or vapor tension of the surrounding medium.

-Webster's New World Dictionary — 1980

Generally, colloidal particle sizes range from less than one nanometer, to particles as large as one Micron, which is the general criteria of the dispersed phase, i.e. between 10 angstroms - (1 nanometer) and 10 000 Å - (1 micron).

What is a particle?

Particles, particularly when we are describing colloidal silver particles, are not single atoms of silver, rather the term particle is used to describe a group of atoms. A cluster-of-atoms is what a particle actually is. The particle size is established by how many atoms make up the single particle-cluster. A single atom is 0.288 nanometers in diameter.

Colloidal silver particle size normally ranges from 1 - 1000 nanometers.

Colloidal particles, when they are in a liquid (dispersion medium), produce an interaction between the particle surface charge and ions within the liquid in the immediate area around the particle, described as an electrical double layer, comprised of strongly bound ions closest to the particle (Stern) layer and the outer less strongly bound (diffuse) area. The diffuse area is also called the slipping plane, within which counter-ion charge accumulates as an ion cloud that moves with the particle within the dispersion medium. The electrical potential in the (slipping plane) notional boundary area is measured as an electrical value in volts (millivolts) and is known as zeta potential. It is within this area that a particle exists as a discrete sovereign entity.

The double layer may be divided into the Stern Layer (Stern Model) and the Gouy - Chapman layer (Gouy - Chapman Model) which extends into the dispersion medium. The electrical double layer model was first introduced by Stern (1924) by combining the Helmholtz and the Gouy-Chapman models, used to describe and calculate SURFACE CHARGE AND SURFACE POTENTIAL.

The charge at the surface of the particle may be an inherent attribute of the particle (s), or may result from an interaction between the particle (s) and the dispersion medium.

Since like charge repels like charge, and opposite charge attracts, it is the very slight net electro-negative surface charge that draws a net positively charged counter-ion band around the particles, that then causes the particles to repulse each other. Like a micro-cosmic game of pool, once set in motion, that then keeps the similarly charged balls bouncing around within the medium which also has a fluctuating charge.

As long as the particles retain the particle size needed to maintain the colloidal state, and the dispersion medium maintains its attributes that allow the dynamic balance of the colloidal state - then the particles remain stable.

According to the electrostatic principles zeta potential (electrified solid/aqueous interface) is calculated by the equation,

x = 4 p s d / D

d : thickness of the electrical double layer
s : the electrical charge in the Stern layer
D : dielectrical constant.

Colloidal Stability

The random repulsion of like charged ions at the surface of the double layer of a particle cluster must be predominant in order to overcome the van der Waals force of attraction, but the two forces must maintain a certain equilibrium, in order for a stable colloidal system to exist.

Random fluctuations in the density of the liquid (Brownian Motion), causes the particles to continue to interact-as-repulsion, observed as particles evenly-dispersed by being in constant, random motion. Thus a colloidal system is stable when the particles remain evenly dispersed over time, and do not aggregate-floc and undergo coagulation, sedimation or phase separation and continue spinning around within the dispersion medium in a lively state known as Brownian Motion.

Named after the discoverer of the phenomena, originally observed in 1827 by British Botanist, Robert Brown (1773 - 1858) who first observed and described the random erratic oscillation of pollen grains in a liquid. The term Brownian motion as it is used today describes the behavior of particles that are magnitudes of orders smaller than the pollen grains originally observed by Robert Brown.

A colloidal system becomes, in a manner of speaking, saturated, when it can no longer carry colloidal material into the medium. The amount of material that can remain in the colloidal state within the medium is established as a function of zeta potential. When the Electro-negative charge increases, more material can be dispersed into the medium. As the electro-negative charge decreases, the particles move closer to each other and breach their electronic barriers. If the attractive force causes particles to make contact with sufficient force they aggregate and adhere strongly and potentially-irreversibly together. The joining of colloidal particles is known as Flocculation or coagulation. The topic of colloidal stability is given more attention within the theory of colloidal stability (PDF) , which involves such concepts as the electrical double layer, van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions collectively addressed as DVLO theory.

DLVO theory (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek theory), describes the dynamic balance of a colloidal system in more elaborate - intricate terms. However, simply put, regarding colloidal systems, stability is determined by the ability of the particles to remain in "dynamic balance", meaning the particles are discrete from each other and from the medium they reside in, exerting the forces of attraction as well as (predominantly) repulsion in such a way that neither attraction nor repulsion overpowers the other while sustaining this state of dynamic balanced interplay over time.

Ultimately, stability is the projected amount of time that the colloidal state is expected to last, usually determined in simple terms as a measurement of zeta potential. Zeta potential measurement is usually accomplished with specialized equipments such as a Malvern Instruments Zetasizer Nano ZS90.

If the dynamic balance is lost, a colloidal system in essence - disintegrates. Disintegration of a colloidal system can manifest in a number of ways. When particles in a colloidal dispersion adhere to one another they form aggregates. The first stage of aggregate formation is called a floc. A floc may or may not settle out or separate. If flocs aggregate into successively increasing density they are described as having undergone coagulation. Flocculation-aggregation & coagulation are often used to describe similar phenomena, however, there are distinctions, for instance, flocculation is often reversible via a process called deflocculation, whereas coagulation usually indicates an irreversible phase separation.

For those of you who want to gain a deeper understanding of the subject of the COLLOIDAL STATE of MATTER, Zeta Potential and the Double Layer with a proper emphasis on "osmosis", then you will enjoy the following link here.

Surface area

Colloidal particles have a high surface area to volume ratio. For example if you have a one ounce silver coin and you drop it on the kitchen floor it will cover a few square inches. However, if you would grind the silver into a fine powder and spread it out it could then cover the entire surface area of a floor. The same idea is applied to finely dispersed particles of silver in water, however rather than a single plane the silver particles surface is spread out in a sense within the medium, in manner that manifests omni-directionally.

A silver ion is slightly smaller than a silver atom because it has one less electron and is therefore 0.230 nm in diameter. A nanometer (nm) equals one billionth of a meter.

Silver ions are positively charged and silver particles in colloidal suspension are negatively charged. Reducing ionic silver content causes the zeta potential to become more negative increasing the stability of the colloid.

How significant are colloids with regard to life as we know it?

Here are some clues:

CU chemist Brian Crane is exploring "the controlled movement of charge, which he describes as "ultimately, the essence of life." Nature's ability to tune the reactivity of metal centers in proteins and to direct electron flow within and between proteins is controlled by the vast number of states available to the polypeptide chain. (A variety of proteins contain metal centers, generally performing functions ranging from the maintenance of structural integrity to catalysis.) The goal of Crane's research is to develop and apply new photochemical methods for studying the structural basis of oxidation-reduction chemistry and long-range electron transfer in biology."

Reference as of May, 2006 has since been moved or removed:

Colloidal Palladium
"PolyMVA Model for Cancer Destruction & Protective Ischemic in Stroke Palladium Lipoic Acid (PLA) acts by transferring electron charge from membrane fatty acids to DNA and mitochondria. Approximately a quarter volt of energy is utilized by the mitochondria, of normal cells, to combine with oxygen to form water in coupled reactions to produce energy (ATP) for normal growth and healing.
In anaerobic or severely hypoxic cell systems, however, such as in certain malignant tumors and protozoa, the electron energy can not transfer to mitochondrial oxygen. Instead a sequence of ionization begins in the cell membrane and in the mitochondrial membrane. These ionization reactions begins with membrane blebbing and matures into a cascade of reactions, known collectively as apoptosis, in which mitochondrial proteins are released, facilitating the activation of cell destructive enzymes. These reactions lead to the eventual death of the anaerobic or hypoxic (cancer) cell and provide a theoretical model for treatment studies. Over 800 physicians who use Poly-MVA cannot be wrong. Dr. James Forsythe, Board Certified Oncologist has recently presented his 125 case study of stage 4 cancer patients with a 77 percent response rate using Poly-MVA. Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, Ovarian, Brain, Pancreatic, Breast, Multiple Myeloma, Leukemia and Lung cancers, many with wide metastasis responded. A 23 percent FULL REVERSAL statistic is unheard of in these type of cancers, add to that 54 percent who had partial remissions and improving and you have a MIRACLE in the making. All this with an average of 6 months of treatment. Yes that is what Dr. Forsythe reported – 77 percent response rate in terminal patients! Bonus. Best protective ischemia product when stroke has occurred. Studies available. "

- Dr. AlbertSanchez

Pure silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal, along with having the lowest contact resistance.

"We used to think, and some still do, that life came from a chemical soup. Now we know that unless there is an electrical charge there is no life. Life, then, is electrical. And when electrical systems go, although the chemistry is still there, the life does not exist."
--Dr. Valerie Hunt, Prof. Emeritus, Dept. of Physiological Sciences, UCLA

» Explanation Of What Colloidal Silver Is

The short answer is, it depends on who you are talking to. This is true, at least in terms of perception. The actual answer is that colloidal silver is colloidal-state silver particles in water. Most commonly and more to the point, aside from the many very technical considerations, it is simply silver mineral water, albeit in a very special physical state. Moreover there are a great many forms of silver mineral water that are determined by factors such as the size of the nano-clusters, presence or lack of presence of ions, properties of the water such as ORP, pH and ionic materials and or state of the water itself.

Other factors can also effect the final product, these are factors that may occur both before the process of creating the colloid is applied as well as afterward, which may directly effect the resulting changes in the condition of the dispersion medium (water) as a result of the process used to create the colloid, as well as the colloidal material itself.

There is a synergistic relationship between the the silver nano-clusters and the dispersion medium. In short, from a very technical standpoint; it is possible to have literally thousands if not millions of different forms of colloidal silver, which is determined in part by the above mentioned issues and other technical and theoretical issues that we will present in a proper forum at a proper time.

In the early 1900s if you asked a doctor what colloidal silver is, he would likely respond that it is a medicine. If you ask the average person today what colloidal silver is, they might say it is a dietary supplement, or they might just wrinkle their forehead and shrug their shoulders to confirm that they don't know.

If you have read the previous chapter, then you have come to realize that colloidal silver is defined as clusters of atoms (particles) that are approximately 1 nanometer to 1 micron in size, that are dispersed into a liquid. Although technically liquids other than water would still accurately describe colloidal silver, and the addition of proteins would also still qualify as a colloid and even compounds would qualify, but when we speak of colloidal silver we mean 1 nm to 1 micron silver particles in water specifically and no other additives. We will discuss ionic and other forms of silver at an appropriate juncture.

The term colloidal is said to have been coined in the late 1800's by an English chemist named Thomas Graham. His designation of the colloidal state was an attempt to address the problem of the classification of matter and materials that did not work for all substances. For example, matter is normally classified as being in one of three states, solid liquid and gaseous. Certain substances defy conventional classification such as gels, tar and jelly like substances. The colloidal state, sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter was an attempt to provide for a way to classify and scientifically deal with certain anomalous states/forms of matter and substances that otherwise lacked a proper technical treatment. Unfortunately the term colloid, ever since that time, has been often been applied to substances that have anomalous attributes, defy normal categorization or were not fully understood.

Graham is often attributed the title "father of colloid chemistry" but it should be noted that Faraday prepared and described "colloidal Gold" at least five years earlier than Graham.

Colloidal silver, zinc, copper, gold and other metals have been produced since the mid to late 1800s. An argument can easily be made that the history of silver as a medicinal goes much further back in time and includes ancient Egypt, Greece, Sumer and Mesopotamia.

Alfred B. Searle, author of the book titled " Colloids in Health and Disease" published in 1920, makes a comment that has always stood out in my mind. He says "Consequently, there is much truth in the statement that a drug to be fully efficient must be in a colloidal state, or convertible into it in the body of the subject."

Mr. Searle also points out in the same book, that, Farady prepared a pure colloidal gold in 1857, "but it was know in the middle ages, though its most important properties were not realized. As early as 1885, it was largely in use in the United States as the basis of a cure for dipsomania,"


A dipsomaniac is a person with an uncontrollable craving for alcohol , especially alcoholic liquors.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What colloidal silver is not.

Ion. — An ion is an atom or group of atoms that is not electrically neutral but instead carries a positive or negative electric charge. Positive ions are formed when neutral atoms or molecules lose valence electrons; negative ions are formed when they gain electrons.

Purely Ionic silver: Ionic silver is not accurately in a colloidal state, although ions are complimentary to the existence of the colloidal state.

It is also not the so called mono atomic (monoatomic) aka (monatomic) state.

Single silver atoms are about 0.288 nm in diameter. Silver in the ionic state is considered dissolved, which is not the same as the discrete state of particles as found in a colloid. The term colloidal dispersion is not accurate for a primarily ionic silver. That said, there is virtually always a ratio of silver ions present with silver particles that are in a true colloidal state, even if it the amount of ions present is very small.

The issue of what constitutes actual colloidal silver can be confusing because of the technical nature of the science, as evidenced by the previous chapter. The problem of conveying what true colloidal silver is may be further hindered by the fact that the term colloidal silver has been used since the early 1900s to describe preparations that at times are not colloidal at all.

In many cases it is due to the complexity of the science involved that inhibits clear distinctions. For example, markets such as the dietary industry, even when clear distinctions are made regarding their product, such as describing it as ionic, encounter a public that has come to equate all forms of silver and water as being described as colloidal silver. A search of google at this time for the keywords "colloidal silver' produces 3,190,000 results. Any serious examination of even a portion of those pages proves this point.

The science to clearly define a true colloidal silver state, as well as the techniques to make true colloidal silver consistently and in a manner that is commercially viable, was developed initially in the early 1900s, though there were only a few sources for such a material during those early days, the current state of technology far outpaces the technology of that era, and although true colloidal silver is now more prevalent it may still be difficult to determine that is what you are getting.

There is still erroneous information regarding colloids found on the internet, even via otherwise reliable sources. This may be due to the fact that some advances are new enough that few are familiar with these developments, but as far as I can tell it most often results from very basic technical errors.

For example, color, such as golden to tea coloring of colloidal silver, in much of the past literature is said to be caused by oxides or impurities. With regard to true colloidal silver, this is simply not true, it is a matter of how light is absorbed and reflected. Another comment I recently saw somewhere, was that colloidal state equates to particles that are a toxic heavy metal. Again, simply not true with regard to state-of-the-art colloidal silver. There are other misconceptions that we will address as we go.

Another problem that needs to be addressed, in prior times (early 1900s to recently) virtually any form of silver that was mixed or compounded with any liquid regardless of the true and accurate chemical and physical category has been referred to as colloidal silver, including ionic sols, compounds etc. It seems that the complexity of the issue made it much easier to deal with by lumping everything together under the term colloid, in order to deal with the anomalous state of the material. It seems that this may still be the case in many instances.

Products that are referred to as mono atomic silver is more likely in truth, ionic silver. We have not yet found a commercial product that actually scientifically meets the criteria of being in a monatomic state. David Hudson holds the patent for ORMES (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements). Monoatomic and true stable colloidal particles are extremely difficult to produce. Furthermore because of the unusual properties that are not yet fully understood that are associated with ORMES, this causes problems with regard to dealing with even the most basic issues, such as testing and validation. We are not currently pursuing research associated with monoatomic silver.

Parts per million is a way of expressing how much silver there is . The total amount or weight is identified as parts per million (PPM). Parts per million is the same as milligrams per liter. Example 10 ppm is the same as 10 milligrams per liter.

The capillaries of the body are approximately 4-9 microns, much larger than colloidal silver, even if and after combining with proteins etc in the body. In theory the body would not have a problem eliminating properly prepared electro-colloidal silver, even if large quantities of common concentrations such as 10 ppm were used. In instances where silver has been found to accumulate in humans, the silver particles that were found to have accumulated, usually are about 5 microns in size. There is no properly manufactured colloid of silver that is 5 microns in size, in fact such particles are 500% larger than is allowed in order to meet the technically accurate description of a colloid. This is not to say one cannot produce such particles, but it is true that such particles are not truly a colloid and would not be manufactured by any professional due to the fact that they would not remain suspended without the addition of a protein, as well as a myriad of other technical concerns.

Silver micro-clusters, and water. i.e. mineral water, are larger than most molecules but smaller than cells.

The term Colloidal silver should only be attributed to an actual colloid, which is covered in the previous chapter.

As you may already know, the FDA made a final ruling in 1999 that colloidal silver is not legal in OTC products. This statement and ruling by the FDA has caused a lot of confusion due to its wording. In that ruling the FDA said that over the counter sales are no longer allowed. Which specifically means pharmaceutical drugs. In other words it is no longer legal to sell colloidal silver as a pharmaceutical drug over the counter of a pharmacy for medical treatment. However this same FDA ruling allows colloidal silver to be sold as a dietary supplement on the shelves of any store, and over the counter of any non pharmaceutical merchant or the pages of any non pharmaceutical classed product via any web site etc.

This may sound strange but that is what happened in 1999 with the FDA final ruling regarding colloidal silver. We will cover the legal-historical aspects of colloidal silver later.

Many people still think that colloidal silver is illegal, Ebay for instance, at the time of this writing, does not allow colloidal silver products to be sold on their web site due to their interpretation of FDA rulings as having designated it as a public hazard and unsafe. While the reality is that it is perfectly legal anywhere in the United States to sell and use colloidal silver as a dietary supplement, so long as it has been manufactured to FDA CGMP standards.

The number of people who have used various products called colloidal silver regularly for many years, we estimate to be measured in the millions in the U.S.A. alone and many more worldwide.

Colloidal silver can be sold to the public as a dietary supplement if the manufacturer has met FDA, state and federal requirements for manufacturing food products such as CGMP (FDA established good manufacturing practices), as well as the label requirements of the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) as well as all other State specific permits, licensing and Federal requirements for manufacturing and product holding facilities.

This is a general description regarding the issues of products manufactured and sold in the U.S.A. as dietary supplements, requirements can be even more stringent and or restrictive in other countries, especially countries whose officials allow dietary supplement laws to be HARMONIZED with the codex alimentarius.

Harmonized to the codex alimentarius, it sounds like the Borg absorbing the beings of a planetary system into the collective, not so amusing to us is the fact that in many ways the so-called Codex really is like that. This is especially true with regard to the way that the protected rights of the individual sovereign people of free- states of a Republic are lost in favor of World-Government entities. It is very disturbing that such entities are appointing themselves as the collective-absolute-authority that decides what is best for us all collectively, globally, in all nations. The forces that Codex represent (pharmaceutical industries) enforce their will on all nations via trade sanctions, withholding of various funding and fines that are imposed on those leaders of Nations who dare to make choices contrary to and defy the lock-step dictates of the Codex. The constitution of the free people of the Republic of the United States is specifically against such forms of restriction of personal liberties. Our constitution and its preamble was designed to make such spurious authoritarian regulations illegal here, but these days such rights are now in question when such laws are in effect slipped in through the back-door of international trade via so-called executive agreements and similar treaties and laws.

The colloidal nature of nature

When a plant or animal consumes water, that water is then structured primarily into highly organized liquid crystals, very few of the water molecules consumed remain unorganized. Living things accomplish this by using highly charged colloidal particles, which form the nuclei around which the highly organized crystalline lattice forms. Silver, when it is in a colloidal state is known to absorb energy and emit energy, in the form of light. It is not a difficult stretch to make the correlation of this phenomena as being equated to the spark of life. That is not to say that this phenomena is isolated to colloidal silver.

In other words all the cells of the body or other living things use "charged colloidal minerals in particular" to organize water molecules into a form that may set the stage for the basic building blocks of cells to form, as well as for other processes such as the function of DNA. The particles appear to form a foundation upon which to organize and build. We are mostly water by volume. Water is the greatest component from which cells form. We are made up of a multitude a various cells and cell types. Physically speaking, we are our cells, and our blood is a dynamically balanced colloidal system. Our cells serve us die and are replaced at an almost unimaginable rate every moment we are alive. In order to be healthy our cells need the ingredients to do their job. Our cells work tirelessly, and only ask that they be given what they need to do their job. Although this is a simplified explanation, you can easily speculate just how important colloidal minerals combined with water are to all living things.

» A Condensed History Of Colloidal Silver | Colloidal Silver Uses

Notice: This information is provided for educational purposes only. The following is provided in order to treat this subject due respect by providing a proper historic account. The reader should not construe colloidal silver uses and historic medical accounts quoted below from earlier literature, such as from quotes regarding material written in the 1920s, or any information herein as medical or professional advice whatsoever. For more information please read our Privacy and Site Notice.

I think it is worthwhile to give proper attention to the historic uses of colloidal silver. People who are not familiar with the historic uses of colloidal silver are often shocked by the quality and quantity of information in this regard. People are also surprised at the level of understanding, broad range of use, extensive documentation and detailed accounts that are recorded for posterity by well known and to this day respected authorities. People are also shocked that such data has been accumulated over such a long period of time, and that they have not heard nor read such accounts before. People are incredulous to review such information, and often find themselves at odds within the realm of their reasoning mind. Particularly when such historical content fly's in the face of often more visible negative attitudes, bias, unreasoning and stupidity. This can be disconcerting at first.

In order to dynamically illustrate these points, and in order to develop a proper historic account of the history of colloidal silver, let us begin by quoting some significant and highly relevant passages from well respected historical material from our personal reference collection. We will begin with quotes from the book "Colloids in Health and Disease" by Alfred B. Searle, published in 1920.

"Colloidal silver, containing 0.05 per cent of the metal in a colloidal form and not as a salt, is clear cherry red liquid"

'Its destructive action on toxins is very marked, so that it will protect rabbits from ten times the lethal dose of tetanic or diphtheric toxin."

"taken internally, the particles of colloidal silver are resistant to the action of dilute acids and alkalis of the stomach, and consequently continue their catalytic action and pass into the intestine unchanged. The importance of this is obvious in such conditions as ulcerative urticaria and other forms of dermatitis suggestive of toxamia, bacillary dysentery, diarrhoea, and colitis.

The use of collosol argentum (a particular brand of true colloidal silver manufactured and available at the time -Ed) in ophthalmic practice and in the affections of the ear and in nasal catarrh and its clinical effect by intravenous injection in septicamia are reported in medical journals.

Colloidal silver has been used with marked success in the following cases, cited by C. E. A. Macleod:

Septic and follicular tonsillitis, Vincent's angina, phlyctenular conjunctivitis, gonorrhoel conjunctivitis, spring catarrh, impetigo (contagious acne of face and body), septic ulcers of legs, ringworm of body, tinea vesicolor, soft sores, suppurative appendicitis after operation (the wounds cleaned rapidly), pustular ecema of scalp and pubes, chronic eczema of meatus of ear with recurrent boils, and also chronic suppuration in otitis media, bromidrosis of feet, axillae and blind boils of neck. By injection: gonorrhoea and chronic cystitis (local), boils, epiditymitis.

Sir James Cantlie has found it particularly effective in cases of sprue, dysentery, and intestinal troubles. Being non-toxic, the dose can be increased from 1 to 2 or more drachms twice or thrice daily.

A. Legge Roe regards stable colloidal silver as a most useful preparation in ophthalmic practice, and particularly in cases of gonorrhoeal ophthalmia, purulent ophthalmia of infants, infected ulcers of the cornea and hypopyon ulcer (tapping of the interior chamber and cautery, and other operative procedures being now rarely required, whilst if perforation does occur it is smaller and more manageable), interstitial keratitis, blepharitis, dacryocystitis, and burns and other wounds of the cornea. According to this authority the great chemosis which usually accompanies the use of silver nitrate is avoided and, in his opinion, if colloidal silver were adopted in every case of purulent ophthalmia of infants "there would be no such thing as impaired sight or blindness from this cause." He has had many cases of interstitial keratitis in adults, in which the complete opacity of the cornea has become absolutely clear in from three to five months, and anyone who has had much experience of this disease in adults knows how often permanent impairment of sight results, and how long the treatment used to last, especially if irritants had been used prior to colloidal treatment."

" T. H. Anderson Wells used it intravenously in a case of puerperal septicaemia without any irritation of the kidneys and with no pigmentation of the skin. This physician has found that a series of intravenous injections, each of collosol argentum, every forty-eight hours produce no untoward effects and that recovery is rapid.

Sir Malcom Morris has found that colloidal silver is free from the drawbacks of other preparations of silver, viz. the pain caused and the discoloration of the skin ; indeed, instead of producing irritation it has a distinctly soothing effect. It rapidly subdues inflammation and promotes the healing of lesions, He has had remarkable results in enlarged prostate with irritation in the bladder in pruritis ani and perineal eczema, and in haemorrhoids. It can be used in the form of suppositories whilst a solution is simultaneously applied to the irritated skin. In bromidrosis in the axille and feet it quickly gives relief. It causes a rapid disappearance of warts. Being non-toxic, it can be given internally in urticaria and other forms of dermatitis which are suggestive of toxamia. In such cases, it is quickly beneficial.

In ophthalmology, colloidal silver has now largely replaced silver nitrate.

J. Mark Hovell has found colloidal silver beneficial for permanently restoring the potency of the eustachian tubes and for reducing nasopharyngeal catarrh. Colloidal silver has also been used successfully in septic conditions of the mouth (including pyorrhoea alveolaris-Rigg's disease), throat (including tonsillitis and quinsies), ear (including Menier's symptoms and closure to Valsava's inflation), and in generalized septicaemia, leucorrhoea, cystitis, whooping-cough, and shingles.

A preparation of colloidal silver which is opaque to X-rays has proven invaluable in certain diagnoses.

J. MacMunn has successfully used silver sol in cases of gonorrhoel prostatic gleet by injection through an endoscope into the substance of the prostate gland.

Collosol argentum has also proven useful in influenza, both as a prophylactic and for curative purposes when applied as a spray to the nostrils, for bathing the eyes, and as a gargle for the throat.

B. Seymour Jones has used an intranasal spray of colloidal silver in a case of cerebro-spinal meningitis. He has also used colloidal silver with marked advantage in several cases of rhinitis and oedematous enlargement of the posterior ends of the middle and inferior turbinates without true hyperplasia." 1

- End Quotes.

These quotes from Colloids in Health and Disease pages 83 - 86 illustrates that there was already a profound knowledge of the use of silver as early as the 1920s, even if the medical terms are dated, not only was the knowledge of colloidal silver well established, but adequately documented by an authority and one of the founders of colloidal chemistry.

The logical question is, ok, if it was considered safe, effective and proven in the mind and practice of physicians and heads of the medical industry at that time, why isn't it still used? Furthermore, how could such knowledge have been lost if it was true?

It is clear to me from a historical analysis of not only Searle's book, but a host of other reliable sources as well, that the knowledge regarding the effectiveness of colloidal silver was not lost, it was obscured. The good news is that the technology and knowledge of colloidal as well as ionic silver is emerging from obscurity rather quickly at the time of this writing.

It is particularly interesting to note that shortly after the original penicillin discovery by Sir Ernst Chain et al., that the U.S. government purchased the patent rights to penicillin in 1940. Later harsh criticism was leveled that British publicly funded scientific research in at least part funded the discovery of penicillin which was, to some, inappropriately sold to US interests. This is reportedly the reason that the National Research and Development Corporation (NRDC) was formed, to prevent such events from happening in the future. The patent rights to penicillin were later divvied up by the U.S. government among prominent U.S.A. pharmaceutical companies that worked in cooperative interest of governmental objectives collectively to mass produce penicillin during the war. It is also important to understand the role of University research and the economic dimension that formed during that time and the future consequences.

One of the leading factors that colloidal silver was not elevated to popular widespread and well understood use in the early 1900s may have been cost, but after careful analysis it is obvious that products that were confused with or inappropriately associated with colloidal silver were the primary cause of confusion and a bad rep that prevented colloidal silver as being preferred to the use of antibiotics, at least where choice of treatment by physicians was concerned. However, we would be remiss to dismiss key factors such as who the beneficiaries of the resulting trends were, in addition to whom it is that had the most pull in terms of effecting and establishing public opinion and policy. We will address this issue more thoroughly later. Many factors converged to create what became the history of colloid silver.

For example, when safe problem-free forms of colloidal silver became popular among leading health practitioners of the early 1920s, knowledge about these products by practitioners at-large was lacking. Worse still, there was wide spread confusion due to the other various available forms of silver all being called colloidal silver even if inappropriately. There was an abundance of products competing with true colloidal silver products, that were called colloidal silver that were not actually colloidal silver that seem to be at the core of the problem. Many of the products called colloidal silver were actually compounds, the use of which was questionable at best, and flawed when compared to the benefits, safety, lack of adverse conditions and effectiveness of actual colloidal silver.

It is hard to comprehend how compounds and other forms of silver continued to be confused with colloidal silver when they were of unreliable consistency and results, not to mention they were downright problematic and caused the problematic condition called argyria (a gray skin discoloration). It seems obvious that manufacturers of compounds and lesser grade silver products continued to push their products even in the face of scientific and medical data that proved their products to be problematic or inferior to competing true colloidal products.

Even though Searle pointed out in 1920 that true colloidal silver, such as the product that he specifically referenced by the brand name "collosol argentum" and specifically stated that it did not have such problems as argyria associated with it, that information apparently was not commonly known by medical practitioners in general. Many if not the majority of practitioners were unaware of these facts. This becomes evident by the fact that a book titled "Argyria The pharmacology of Silver" was written in 1939 that details the products used, amounts used and conditions treated with primarily silver compounds that resulted in argyria as a condition. Nowhere in that book is collosol argentum mentioned to have caused argyria, even though it was used during the time period that book covers. If Searle's information and the product he mentioned had been widely used rather than nitrates etc., the need to write a book that chronicled cases of argyria may have been nearly or altogether negated.

To put the events of the time into perspective, we must also consider that, in 1923, Weimar Germany had a collapse of the physical economy and monetary system, which sent shock waves across the world in every conceivable manner. A few sort years later the U.S. stock market crashed.

During this time, while colloidal-chemistry and the use of colloidal silver and silver hydrosols was emerging, there was a competing technology emerging called antibiotics.

At a time of economic depression, when the world was threatened by fascist governments and tough decisions at all levels, it is easy to see how the cheaper to produce, and much more highly profitable antibiotics such as penicillin became popularized to the disadvantage of colloidal silver.

As we now know, economic conditions of the great depression, war and the ravages of war altered the course of human history. In 1937 when the FDA was formed, public-safety, expediency, consistency, reliability and affordability were prominent considerations of pharmaceutical industry leaders who were now faced with dealing with the newly created agency called the FDA.

When faced with the choice of the ease of bringing very profitable antibiotic drugs to market, as opposed to the high cost of producing colloidal silver and its associated drawbacks in terms of complexity and image, the choice became easy. Think about it, the true colloidal state was understood by very few, true colloidal silver was gaining a bad image due to the problems associated with similarly labeled products made by manufactures that were NOT really colloidal silver, and the recognition by pharmaceutical executives that to correct these issues had proved to be very difficult and could be expected to continue to be difficult to turn around. The choice for pharmaceutical executives was a no brainer. Oddly, what happened back then, in many ways has happened again.

It would be easy to add even more perspective but we must move on. For clarification, the cherry red color that Searle describes as the colloidal silver of the 1920s was much more concentrated than what is now commonly known as colloidal silver today. Regardless of the process used to create it, the particle size was certainly larger than can be produced with current state of the art processes. True colloidal silver of today is more golden than red although as it approaches 20 ppm and higher, it acquires a brownish tea color, in higher concentrations it would still take on a reddish hue, so the absolute truth regarding particle size of colosol argentium is also still in doubt, but it can be safely assumed that it would likely measure in the sub micron range due the the fact that is was known to NOT accumulate in the body and cause argyria.

Instead of hundreds or thousands of parts per million, today's colloidal silver is on average 10 -20 parts per million. Some products can be found that are hundreds or thousands of parts per million, but they are usually actually silver particles held in solution by proteins (mild silver protein). The effectiveness in lab tests of 10-20 ppm true colloidal silver exceeds virtually any previous form of colloidal silver, even though current concentrations are hundreds or thousands of times less than what had been used in the past. This is due to increased surface area and other technical factors and improvements regarding the technology as a whole, discussed in more detail elsewhere in this material.

Recent historical colloidal silver perspectives

Research by Dr. Robert O. Becker in the 1970's, is often sited as a leading cause that sparked a renewed interest in colloidal silver. However our investigation leads us to believe that the primary cause was from the so-called underground.

Research results published in periodicals and books such as Dr. Robert O. Becker's "The Body Electric," which chronicles the exciting laboratory and real life results he observed & demonstrated regarding the practical health benefits of colloidal silver kindled renewed interest, even though Dr. Becker never advocated the consumption of colloidal silver for the treatment of ailments. Other information and research results about colloidal silver prior to the 1970's also began to circulate. Initially very few people had acquired the knowledge to produce colloidal silver. With the advent of low voltage safe techniques used to disperse silver, allowed those with such knowledge to make silver dispersions very inexpensively. Even though the low voltage dispersions are 60-90 percent ionic silver, people still consistently shared anecdotal reports that a wide variety of ailments were either reversed entirely or greatly improved rapidly.

Word of mouth spread these convincing personal accounts, as person after person, voluntarily shared their personal healing experiences with others, most often as far as we are able to discern with no monetary gain to be had, but not in every case. If the experiences of such people was simply a bunch of hype, the trend would surely have died out in time? With so many people convinced of profound healing and disease prevention attributed to their use of colloidal silver, as well as astounding laboratory test results, preliminary and ongoing "In Vivo clinical trials," an atmosphere was created that fostered both good and bad consequences. One consequence, was that the demand for access to colloidal silver and information about colloidal silver increased.

As the demand increased, the number of producers increased. Virtually every product being marketed as colloidal silver ranged from primarily ionic silver, or a mild-silver-protein (particles held in suspension not by zeta potential - but by colloidal proteins) to very rarely actually colloidal.

Initially colloidal silver was marketed as a "natural antibiotic." The general understanding by the producers and consumers was, that colloidal silver had been grand fathered in as a pre (FDA) drug, and that in essence, colloidal silver was a harmless mineral water substance that could be produced packaged and marketed without dealing with FDA regulations as long as it was used in the same manner as done before the FDA was formed in 1938.

Information about colloidal silver was distributed even faster as the world wide web became popular. Instructions that outlined how to make CS began to spread, and as you can imagine that information is not always reliable, and errors were bound to be made from many angles.

High demand created a scenario that was too tempting for some. These individuals proceeded to place profit above genuine caring. For a time there were real problems as products with little or questionable-negligible value began to find their way to the marketplace such as colored water imitations. The activities of the ill-informed, misdirected and unscrupulous collectively served to marginalize and discredit the emerging industry as a whole.

As an example, for a time in the mid 1990s people selling colloidal silver advertised in their sales literature, that; "the FDA has no control over colloidal silver because it is a pure mineral element".

After several rulings, such as in 1997 on January 16, the FDA issued new guidelines regarding colloidal silver labeling that went into effect. It was then no longer permissible to label colloidal silver as an antibiotic, but was allowed to continue to be labeled and sold as a mineral supplement.

Too many individuals that entered the market and sold products they called colloidal silver, made blatant unsubstantiated medical claims about colloidal silver, with little or no supporting evidence.

The following is an article in the public domain at The United Nations web site in the (WHO) World Health Organization section. "WHO Pharmaceuticals Newsletter (world Health Organization) Nos. 5&6, May&June 1997"

"Regulatory actions

Colloidal silver or silver salts - proposed rule : no longer acceptable in over-the-counter products United States of America. The Food and Drug Administration has proposed a rule establishing that over-the-counter products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts for internal or external use are no longer acceptable.

The agency is issuing this proposal because colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts are being marketed for numerous serious disease conditions and the agency is not aware of any substantial scientific evidence that supports their use for these diseases, which include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, cancer, and many infectious diseases.

The dosage form of these colloidal silver products is usually oral, but product labeling also contains directions for topical and, occasionally, intravenous use. Some products have been offered for sale by mail order.

Manufacturers are invited to submit any existing data and information that support the safety and effectiveness of colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts for use other than as an astringent (silver nitrate), a smoking deterrent (silver nitrate or silver acetate) or mild silver protein as an ophthalmic anti-infective, all of which have already been reviewed by the agency and found ineffective.

Reference: Federal Register 61(200): 53685-53688 (1996). " (End of quote)

The FDA went head on with the issue of Colloidal Silver. Manufactures were reportedly given an opportunity to present to the FDA proof of safety and effectiveness, that met their criteria, before they made a final ruling. A final ruling was made, and use as a medicine, or medical claims associated with the "Grandfather Clause" were disallowed. See:

[Federal Register: August 17, 1999 (Volume 64, Number 158)]

[Rules and Regulations]

[Page 44653-44658]



Colloidal silver is still allowed to be sold as a dietary supplement as well as for any other non-medical purposes. Wound preparations in certain forms are allowed. In other words the FDA ruling quite simply overturned the previous status of colloidal silver being protected by the grandfather clause as a pre 1938 drug (a drug used before the creation of the FDA). The term over-the-counter in FDA-speak means sales of DRUGS sold at a pharmacy = over-the-counter. Geez, lets' confuse people why don't we? In short the colloidal silver was then not allowed as a formal treatment by licensed medical practitioners. Even though it makes it sound like the words over-the-counter means any sales counter. For detailed information about the ruling, and considerations for anyone considering any commercial use of colloidal silver should check with the appropriate Federal agency relevant to that use and industry.

Factoids and timeline of the use of silver

Ancient use of silver

* The use of silver is as old as human history. Although silver's importance as a bactericide is reported to have begun being documented during the mid to late 1800s, its use in water purification and medicine has been known throughout the ages.
* Archaeologists Discovered an Ancient Untouched Tomb In Syria from one of the world's first city-dwelling civilizations, undisturbed for about 4,300 years that contained a silver cup and silver pins. The people of this tomb lived around the time of the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia (Iraq).
* Since ancient times silver has been used as a material used for water vessels because it was known to keep or cause water to be safe to drink, even if the water source would otherwise produce illness. The historical account of Herodotus, records that the King of Persia used silver flagons in which water was boiled to prevent illness.
* In ancient Sumeria, Greece, Egypt, Rome, Phoenicia, and Macedonia, silver was used as a material to make water vessels ( cups & pitchers), eating utensils and as a preservative to prevent food spoilage. During voyages the Phoenicians used silver vessels to keep water, wine, oils and vinegar pure.
* Skeletons have been found in Egypt where silver pins were used to repair bones via surgical procedures.
* Hippocrates, the so-called Father of medicine recommended the use of finely ground silver powder for various conditions including ulcers and wounds.
* Aristotle reportedly advised Alexander the Great to boil water and store it in silver vessels to prevent waterborne diseases. ref. Russell (1994)
* Vikings would apply strings of silver and copper below the water-line on the hull of their ships to prevent barnacles and the growth of algae. This practice is still in use on modern ships (Laubusch 1971). (2)
* It is thought that the practice of medicine and alchemy during the Medieval period extensively employed the ground silver powder recommended by Hippocrates. The extensive (overuse of) or exposure to finely ground powder silver is known to cause a bluish hue to the skin called argyria caused by silver being deposited in dermal cells. This is thought to be the cause and reason for the name blue-bloods, who used silver to treat or ward off disease. So-called blue bloods also extensively used silver eating and drinking utensils, however such use does not ready produce the bluish skin tone, even after long term repeated use, thus the use of powder silver is very well supported as the actual cause of the blue blood phenomena. Blue bloods use of silver is noted by to have protected them from widespread diseases and plagues of that time.
* The phrase “Born with a silver spoon in his mouth” developed from the use of silver spoons as pacifiers, as well as silver pacifiers purposefully made for the children of blue bloods and nobility. These children were also fed with silver spoons. Although the idea now represents being born into favor and riches, in those times it was more akin to the idea of the have and have not's of silver as a form of health insurance for children against disease and plagues.
* Ayurvedic medicine prescribes the use of pure silver tongue scrapers as a part of dental maintenance, as well as for other conditions.
* In the Middle East silver was very widely used for the treatment of heart problems, blood purification and other conditions as well as foil placed on wounds, and .
* Virtually all civilizations used silver because it was known to infuse drinking water with health properties. Silver has been used in many other medical therapies and devices, such as, bone prostheses, ophthalmic surgery, treatments for venereal disease and veterinary medicine. Ancient surgeons used silver pins to fuse bones, silver wire to suture wounds, silver powder on ulcerations, silver infused poultices/plasters and silver foil to protect wounds against infections. This predates Pasteur's Germ Theory of Disease (published in 1877) and Sir Alexander Fleming who isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928 , for which he shared a Nobel Prize with Florey and Chain . [1] . .
* Tsar Alexander used silver lined water casks to purify water from rivers and streams to make it fit for drinking.
* The Imperial Russian army continued the practice of using silver lined casks through World War I, and to a lesser degree by the Soviet Army during World War II.
* Throughout American history silver coins were used in wooden milk casks, or milk was drawn into smaller silver milking buckets before transfer to a larger container to prevent it from spoiling. This practice was continued to some degree as late as the early 1900s.
* Silver has been used since the early in the space program to sterilize recycled water aboard the MIR space station and the NASA space shuttle.

Modern uses of silver

Raulin recorded the first description of the water cleansing effect by silver in 1869. He observed that Aspergillus niger could not grow in silver vessels.

* In 1617 FABRICIUS of Aquapendante, fed patients suffering from tetanus by inserting a small silver tube via the nasal passage.
* In 1656 Sir Christopher Wren, an English astronomer, mathematician and architect , developed the technique of administering intravenous medications. The first use was for (dogs) by use of an animal bladder attached to quills to inject a nutrient solution, later silver cannulae (Tube with a sharpened end ) was connected to a small leather bag as a syringe like apparatus.
* In 1853 Charles Pravaz, a French physician, created the first true hypodermic syringe made entirely of silver, the volume of this syringe was one cubic centimeter of liquid.
* In 1881 the first documented 'modern day' medical use of silver is generally attributed to Credé for the prevention of eye infection in neonates and for internal antisepsis in 1901. Ref. Russell AD, Hugo WB. Antimicrobial activity and action of silver. Prog Med Chem 1994; 31 : 351-70.
* In 1884, Crede, a German obstetrician began administering 1% silver nitrate solution on newborns to prevent blindness.(3) this was the treatment of choice to prevent blindness of children born to a parent with venereal disease or post-partum infection.3 Although Searle et al gave ample evidence that colloidal silver was superior in this regard, yet this use of silver nitrate continues to this day. "the introduction of colloidal silver by Crede* in 1896 was the first instance of the employment of a colloidal metal because of its colloidal nature." Ref. Bechhold, H, Colloids in Biology and Medicine, translated by J. G. M. Bullow,D. New York:Van Nostrand Company;1919; p. 365.
* In 1887 Emil Von Behring ( Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901 regarding his work on serum therapy) illustrated that 0.25% and 0.01% silver nitrate solutions were effective against typhoid and anthrax bacilli, respectively. - Ref. Grier N. Silver and its compounds. In: Block SS (ed). Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, Third Edition. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lea + Febiger;1983.
* In 1888, Variot developed a procedure using silver nitrate for disruptions of the skin surface after punctures and incisions. Ref. Variot G. Nouveau procede de destruction des tatouages. Compte-Rendu Societe Biologie (Paris). 1888;8:836.
* Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli ( March 27 , 1817 - May 11 , 1891 ) a Swiss botanist, as a point of interest, he discovered what he called transitory cytoblasts, which are what we now know as chromosomes. The antibacterial effects of metals against bacteria and lower life forms was described by von Nageli. His scientific designation describing the intense antibacterial activity caused by minute amounts of extremely fine silver, copper as well as other metal hydrosols was dubbed oligodynamic effect.
* 1910-1913, Henry Crookes documented germicidal action of silver in a manner that was widely published and acknowledged. For example: "Colloidal Preparations of Silver in Pharmacy,"February 1923: "Pure Silver is entirely non-irritant. In tests at very high concentrations, it has been shown repeatedly that the rapidly exerted disinfectant action is of considerable therapeutic value." - Ref. The British Medical Journal. Nov, 1913, Dr. Henry Crookes. Additionally Dr. Crooks published the following statement: "silver in the colloidal state is highly germicidal, quite harmless to humans and absolutely non-toxic. Rather than in a chemical compound, the silver in the colloidal state may be applied in a much more concentrated form, with correspondingly better results. All virus, fungus, bacterium, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and other pathogenic organisms are killed in three or four minutes upon contact. There are no side effects whatsoever from the highest concentrations." - Ref. Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. Dr. Henry Crooks
* 1928 Katadyn of Switzerland, develped a silver impregnated ceramic gravity fed water filter, used in remote areas where clean water is not readily available by by NGOs, Relief Agencies, and Missionary groups and military around the world.
* As of 1939 there were 94 Proprietary silver preparations listed as in use by medical practitioners in a book titled 'Argyria The Pharmacology of Silver; by William R. Hill, M.D. (Baltimore) The Williams & Wilkins Company; 1939 . Not surprisingly, these silver preparations are inappropriately ALL listed in this 'self published' book as "Proprietary Silver Compounds." Which illustrates in a blatant manner the lack of understanding on the part of the author regarding the proper designation of the term compound, as well as a lack of basic knowledge regarding chemistry, as evidenced by the authors' inability to differentiate between compounds and colloids. Moreover this also illustrates a similar lack of understanding by current-day so-called experts who reference the above work when seeking to discredit the use of colloidal silver.
* 1940s In FBI declassified document 100 - 93211. 247 dated December 21, 1949 and declassified 09/09/2004, it is documented therein, that Alexander Goetz, Associate Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology, worked with the U.S. Navy, "he helped perfect the process for conversating sea water into fresh water by the use of silverized carbon pellets." which no doubt was of great benefit to the World War II effort, although the exact date of the development is not given in this document. It appears this knowledge was held in confidence as a strategic edge against the enemy as other references to this development are otherwise lacking.
* In 1965, Moyer et al were the first to document the use of silver nitrate for the treatment of burns. They documented pronounced antibacterial activity via the use of compresses soaked with 0.5% silver nitrate that was then applied to injurious burns . Ref. Moyer CA, Brentano L, Gravens DL, Margraf HW, Monafo WW. Treatment of large human burns with 0.5% silver nitrate solution. Arch Surg 1965; 90 : 812-67.
* In 1968 sulfadiazine was introduced as a formal treatment for burns and is still in use worldwide. - Ref. Moyer CA, Brentono L, Gravens DL, Margrat HW, Monafo WW. Treatment of large human burns with 0.5% silver nitrate solution. Arch Surg. 1965;90:812
* Silver needles are used for acupuncture by doctors of Chinese medicine.
* The space program has routinely used silver since the Apollo missions to sterilize recycled water. Silver ion exchange materials are still in use aboard the MIR space station and the NASA space shuttle.(5)
* Indians consume large amounts of edible silver foil used to wrap sweets and betel nut products. Indians regularly buy silver-foiled sweets for weddings, special occasions and everyday snacks such as silver foil wrapped leaves for "paan masala," a chewy concoction of betel nut and spices. Other Indian foods include an edible silver foil called Varak . In 2005 it was estimated that Indians eat around 2,75,000 kilograms (605,000 pounds) of silver foil each year. As reported by the Industrial Toxicology Research Center of India. Depending on who you talk to, silver used in this manner originated and has a known health impetus, or is merely ornamental or currently is detrimental due to adultery of the silver.
* Present (at the time of this writing), the following applications rank among the growing list of accepted and applied applications of silver: Wound and surgical care products, coatings and treatments to prevent the growth of pathogens for: catheters, heart valves, dental devices, orthopedic devices, hosptial curtains - bedding and examination gowns as well as surgical garb and surgical scrubs, to list but a few of the main applications. We cover this issue in more detail eldwherein this report.
* As previously mentioned serious considerations are in the works as concern the use of colloidal silver and ionic silver for use in municipal water treatment and biowarfare remediation. Although this is far from an exhaustive history,

We know that colloidal silver has been used formally for a long time as a medicine. So, our question now is, how could, after more than 100 years of formal medical use, a day arrive that there is a simple declaration made that colloidal silver is ineffective, never had been, end of story, move on nothing to see here? Isn't that exactly what happened when the FDA made its final ruling regarding medical use of colloidal silver in 1999, at least in terms of public treament of the subject?

We are not suggesting that the FDA crafted reality and caused this phenomena to occur, but we do think it is a very worthy point of interest for the reader to think about. The various influences and conditions which converged to create what is now historical fact with regard to the topic at hand as a whole lead one to ask; when policy is created, whom does it benefit?.

If silver water is effective against organisms such as HIV in lab tests, as has been recently done in 2005, why isn't such a finding heralded as a braktrhough that offers hope and garners funding support for further research?

Since losing the pre-1938 FDA drug status colloidal silver had in 1999, it would now require the same expensive process to prove safety and effectiveness that pharmaceutical products must endure before colloidal silver could be reclassified as a medicine. The cost of getting a new drug approved costs, by several accounts, at the time of this writing is now measured in 100s of Millions of dollars.

Who has the resources to accomplish such a task? The same people who are already in the pharmecutical business.

Attitudes are changing. As has now been confirmed by this writer, evidenced below, the U.S. Government and Veterans administration has formal contracts to purchase colloidal silver for a wide array of approved and proposed purposes.

This may come as a surprise to some of you, but the U.S. Military and Veterans Administration has not only warmed up to the idea of considering the use of colloidal silver, but in fact as of 2005 already has rather large contacts to purchase an array of colloid silver based products.

Gone is the era of viewing colloidal silver as snake oil by the government. These colloidal silver based products are approved or in the process of being approved by the FDA. For example, a recent U.S. Government contract for colloidal silver, as but one example is: (GSA # GS-07F-0826N).

Some of the intended uses with regard to these contracts or forward looking contracts include: Disinfectant FDA approved for: Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Nosocmial pathogenic bacteria. “Noted as approved for disinfectant use in: : Hospital operating rooms, Any medical facility, Industrial facilities, Commercial facilities, Residential or home uses.”

What may come as an even bigger surprise to some of you is the extent of proposed uses of colloidal silver for the U.S. Military. One supplier, ABL, stated in a public disclosure page that has since been "taken down for updates" regarding a proposed product slated for potential U.S. Military procurement of a colloidal silver based product: “Direct antimicrobial testing that has been completed, but not yet added to our public approved claim list, currently includes numerous other superbugs and possible bioweapons including: MRSA 1, MRSA 2, Anthrax, Y. Pestis or Bubonic Plague, five different pathogenic strains of Streptococcus, E. coli, Salmonella, yeasts and even a number of deadly viruses including NIH tests on SARS, etc.” The proposal also stated: “It could be spread by airplane and/or helicopters to decontaminate hospitals, government buildings, military installations, command centers or even a city.”

One final quote regarding this proposed product: "also the fact that it will not harm people, plants or animals, it is currently theorized as the perfect product for decontamination of large-scale operations. It could be spread by airplane and/or helicopters to decontaminate hospitals, government buildings, military installations, command centers or even a city. Used in portable fogging sprayers, towed behind four-wheeler units, it could be used to decontaminate hallways and buildings from the inside."

Again proving that colloidal silver is no longer viewed by those in the know as fools gold.

The Veterans administration also issued a contract for colloidal silver products, Contract number V797P-5762X. This further illustrates continued acceptance and validation of the effectiveness of colloidal silver in a substantial way, and opens up military and other main-stream commercial considerations for product development.

We also know that the Army via a Patent issued to Westpoint includes colloidal silver and UV as a viable and affordable method for such things as municipal water treatment, and furthermore, I know this to be true, because at the time of this writing I have been engaged in formal discussion with the relevant Department of Defense concerns with regard to taking the above mentioned patented technology to the private sector.

Will colloidal silver be outlawed if it becomes an official medicine? Answer: No! Why? Because if a form of colloidal silver were to be approved by the FDA, which has been and is being done, then that patented specific form and name brand is approved for such purposes individually and separately. All products manufactured and sold as dietary supplements would be unaffected. Dietary forms of silver would not suddenly be approved for medical purposes, the status of current regulation of such products would simply remain the same.

Some less than honest individuals try to imply that, if a company such as ours, who is actively pursuing serious clinical and other research, succeeds, in getting a form of colloidal silver approved for legal medical use, anywhere in the world, that our company would then jeopardizing free access to colloidal silver by causing it to be regulated. Geez, all we can can say is; some peoples kids ;)

Nothing we do would adversly change current regualtions, nor adversely effect access to colloidal silver products, if anything there wil be a beneift in the form of enhancing the legitmacy and acceptance of this technology

Success in getting a form of colloidal silver approved for medical use, regarless of who accomplishes such a feat, would then allow doctors to use such a product in formal medical treatment. Currently doctors have very limited access, and depending on the area of internded use, do not have access to FDA approved colloidal silver products. Realistically, due to the cost to get a new drug approved in the USA, it is more likely that legal medical use of colloidal silver will continue to be adopted in other countries, long before it becomes available in the U.S.A.

We forecast that colloidal silver will eventually become a pharmaceutical medicine. In fact it is already approved for medial use in some countries, and clinical trials are being approved with cooperation of governments and the hospital systems in places such as Uganda, where the need to treat diseases such as AIDS affordably is a primary impetus that is driving such use already, as well as serious research regarding collodal silver in general.

Although pure silver in water may not conform to a patentable substance. We are sure that colloidal-state silver can be integrated with other substances in such a way that it could then be patented. We believe that process is going on right now, and some products have already been fast-tracked.

All we know for sure is that we do not have 100s of millions to invest, so we will focus on all the other potential applications of colloidal silver instead, and since the potential is enormous, we are not without hope.

History is full of success stories, and alternatively tragedies.

We still find it hard to reconcile how quickly history can be altered or forgotten within the mind of the general population. Colloidal silver had a well established and documented history of being used an an antibiotic alternative, even by the U.S. Navy, yet today this is not widely known, and worse, it seems such information in many cases is being intentionaly obsured.

Since 199 when the FDA ruled that colloidal silver can't be used in medicine, and suposedly that it was found to be infeffective for medical use, it is as if some big switch was flipped that shut off history and comon sense. Then the impression was and is parroted from many quarters, that, these things never did happen, and colloidal silver never had been legitimately much less very effectively used for medicinal purposes, and that no such use is valid. Meanwhile the U.S. military, humanitarian organizations and the Veternas Administrations, and the Army patent via Westpoints actions speak to the truth of the matter.

All I can say easily regarding this topic as a whole, is that I am truly amazed.

In our experience, it is not just colloidal silver that has had its history switch flipped to the off position. Many switches appear to have been flipped off. Profound truths and works regarding, health, science, statesmanship, art, poetry, discoveries and demonstrations of universal principles and profound thoughts of every kind by the greatest minds of all time are often not given the prominence they deserve, and somehow status quo often favors the thoughts of lessor men within the culture at large.

Still the seeds of truth have their season, and we know without a doubt that regardless of appearances, when the truth is buried its indestructible seeds spring forth again in due course prolifically in a manner that cannot be eraticated, as is currently increasingly the case.

One last thought:

"All life processes take place in a colloidal system,"

- Prof. Wolfgang Ostwald

» Colloidal Silver Research and Development | Benefits of Colloidal Silver

This section is dedicated to inspiring the development and identification of potential markets as well as applications for colloidal silver and for general information.

The following data provides a snapshot of various developing markets, potential uses for colloidal silver as well as for general research considerations and informational links.

This section is designed to inspire creativity regarding how colloidal silver is or might be potentially used commercially from the perspective of professional research and development by qualified parties in consideration of potential benefits of colloidal silver. However we are not implying nor advocating that this information be used to imply a particular benefit or use with regard to the purchase or use of our products. Please read our Privacy and Site Notice regarding use of The Colloidal Silver knowledge Base.

This section is not intended to be an all encompassing presentation, but it will provide you some very interesting considerations and perspective.

General current or potential functional uses and research considerations:

Silver band aides - (bandages)for wounds

Silver soaked & dried pajamas - Fighting MRSA

Colostomy bags - infection preventative

Silver building materials - anti microbial

Biocide Fibres - anti fungal and anti microbial additives

Silver impregnated ceramic - water purification

Silver atomized dispersal - steam room purification

Silver impregnated shoe inserts - odor control

Colloidal silver milk additive - greatly prolonging shelf life in minute amounts

Personal care products additive - for prolonging shelf life

Supermarket products - for washing vegetables

Food -preservative

Silver Nano particle Coated Polyurethane Foam - as an Antibacterial Water Filter

Silver impregnated ceramic water filter - example Potters for peace project PDF

Medicine - the medical sector was one of the first end-uses

Burn and wound products - burn dressings, surgical instruments and hand sanitizers.

Hospital textiles in hospitals - for reduction of infectious microbes in curtains and other materials.

Sportswear - to prevent odor in clothing.

In the home consumers products - washing machines, refrigerators, HVAC filters, brooms, dehumidifiers as well as food containers that employ silver nano particles to kill bacteria and limit mold growth.

Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to HIV-1 virus

Published October 14, 2005 in Nanotechnology

"In the first-ever study of metal nanoparticles' interaction with HIV-1, silver nanoparticles of sizes 1-10nm attached to HIV-1 and prevented the virus from bonding to host cells. The study, published in the Journal of Nanotechnology , was a joint project between the University of Texas, Austin and Mexico University, Nuevo Leon."

Source: (PDF)

The late Dr. M. Paul Farber states in his book "The Micro Silver Bullet" on page XXVI the following:

"I will let the scientific evidence speak for itself." -- "I was able to begin half a dozen pioneering patents on Mild Silver Protein about one month ago. I am pleased to inform you that it is working faster than I anticipated, and many of them are either symptom free or close to it, with no side effects."

Another quote from the same book qualifies the above statement, in a copy of a letter to Dr. Paul Farber, received from his associate Myer Rice, M.D.,Ph.D. dated June 18, 1996 on page XXXI states: "Dr. Paul Farber, Enclosed are the results of the first three months of clinical trials of HIV infected patients using Collag-40. Anecdotally, all patients are feeling well with no clinical symptoms or active opportunistic infections. As the records indicate, CD-4 Cells are in general on the way up, all individuals that started with active P-24 antigenicity have reverted to negative."

Some of the developing research even if only potentially true is certainly worth follow up research. For instance, the title of his book: "AIDS STUDY Eight people recover from the Aids Virus in a scientifically documented study. An additional seven Aids Patients recover as verified by anecdotal reports. Testimonials Aids Virus Gulf War Syndrome."

Reference: Book cover and title: "The Micro Silver Bullet" "A Preliminary Scientifically Documented Answer to the Three Largest Epidemics in the World: Lyme Disease - Aids Virus - Yeast Infection - (and the Common Cold)"
Author - Dr. M. Paul Farber, B.A., B.S., M.A., M.S.., N.D., Ph.D., D.C.

ISBN 1-887742-00-X-

It is my understanding that Dr. Farber met an untimely death before his clinical trials or patents were completed. Our sincere condolences to his family, friends and associates.

Reduction in HIV Viral Load in Mild Silver Protein Case Studies
by Kimberly Pryor

"A recent article appearing in the Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine lends further merit to the use of silver as an anti-viral agent. The article titled
"Reduction of Viral Load in AIDS Patients with Intravenous Mild Silver Protein--Three Case Reports" is an intriguing glimpse into the potential applications of an important, but often overlooked metal. In the article, study authors Dean, Mitchell, Whizar-Lugo, and South, explore silvers history in the pre-antibiotic era--and report their impressive results on the intravenous use of mild silver protein in three case studies."

Link to report:

Dr. Michael C. Biamonte D.N., CCN

Michael C. Biamonte , of the Biomante Center for Clinical Nutrition , a certified clinical nutritionist and Naturopath, is a nutritional practitioner and has been involved in clinical research since the 1980's.

The Biomante Center for Clinical Nutrition has been involved in researching nutritional protocols for HIV and AIDS sufferers, among other chronic illnesses.

Michael Biamonte Quote:

"...At this point I went back to the drawing board. I remained level headed enough to see that while Dr. Clark's program may not be making people HIV negative, it still was helping people a great deal, so there were things right about it and truth to be had in it..."

"...The researcher mentioned that he had tested silver against HIV in a test tube and it had killed it. I then had the idea to try silver on these HIV patients and monitor them with the viral load tests. I was careful to only use silver that had been tested by independent labs and had its effectiveness verified. In addition to the silver, I gave them some other supportive factors. After 6 months of working on this protocol, it was completed..."

[ please note that colloidal silver was not the only substance used ]

"...After an average of 8 months to 1 year on this program, 90% of the patients are reporting that their viral load tests are scoring less than 400 copies, which in English means the HIV virus is no longer detectable..."

More Information on Michael Biomante:

Referenced June, 2007 link has since been removed. See a pattern here?

News Article written by Marvin Robey: A Safe and Simple Treatment for Aids

"The Herald of Provo Utah, February 2, 1992, ran an article on Pg. D1, in which a member of the administrative staff of Brigham Young University by the name of Daryl Tichy has been successfully experimenting with colloidal silver in the treatment of AIDS, along with warts and parvo virus in a dog. "Tichy said he had the material [colloidal silver] tested at two different labs; results showed the solution killed a variety of pathogens, including the HIV virus." Tichy then states, "I don't have a doubt in my mind." He says he has not been able to obtain funds to continue his research."


Promising cure to URTI pandemics, including the Avian flu : has the final solution to the coming plagues been discovered?

"Emerging medical studies confirm the stellar, broad-spectrum virotoxic efficacy of oligodynamic silver both in vitro and in vivo. This includes some of the most formidable viral organisms like HIV (including co-infections) (3-11) and Herpesvirus hominis (HSV). (12-18) Despite the low yields of oligodynamic silver of the past 100 years common to silver-based drugs, the collective authoritative medical literature has documented efficacy of silver's virotoxicity against over 24 viruses."


Silver Used To Battle Bacteria Inside Your Home
Can Help In Food Containers, Clothes & Washing Machines

Sep 28, 2006 6:29 pm US/Eastern
"I've used containers before where stuff in two, three days, it goes bad," he said.

Now a new kind of container--infused with pieces of silver-- may solve that problem.

Silver has been used for decades by the medical community to fight bacteria and odor. And, now it's showing up in everything from clothes to soap...even washing machines. "

Original Link:

Use of Silver Nanoparticles Rapidly Expanding in the Consumer and Medical Markets, Says Bourne Research

Bourne Research - May 4, 2006

SCOTTSDALE, Ariz. -- Silver nanoparticles are emerging as one of the fastest growing product categories in the Nanotechnology industry, according to Bourne Research ( The market research firm reports that the ability to produce particles of silver at the nanoscale is allowing companies to leverage its known antimicrobial properties in ways never before imagined as an effective means of infection control.
"Silver nanoparticles may very well become the next 'it' product, much like antibacterial soaps took the consumer sector by storm a decade …


"In its latest position document on Management of Wound Infection, the European Wound Management Association has examined the role of topical antimicrobial therapy in the management of acute and chronic wounds [1] . It has also provided advice on the use and selection of antimicrobial dressing products across a range of wound types. An important element in bacterial management has been the renewed interest in the use of ionic silver for a wide range of topical antimicrobial applications aimed at reducing the risk of wound infection, facilitating the treatment of infected wounds and reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. This is largely attributed to its bactericidal efficacy at low concentration and its relatively limited toxicity to human cells. This paper reviews the background to the rise in use of silver for wound care and the potential for emergent bacterial resistance to silver."


Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent

Authors: Abdulkareem Melaiye; Wiley J Youngs

Source: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, Volume 15, Number 2, 1 February 2005, pp. 125-130(6)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Link: etp/2005/00000015/00000002/art00001

A Scientific Perspective on the Use of Topical Silver Preparations
- Robert E. Burrell, PhD

Antimicrobial activity. Silver is effective against a broad range of aerobic, anaerobic, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi, and viruses.1,6-8 In combination with its broad antimicrobial properties, silver also appears to have other prohealing or anti-inflammatory properties as suggested by the loss of rubor in chronic wounds treated with silver.2
The concentrations of silver that are needed to create a biological effect are dependent upon the local environment. In a pristine aqueous system, concentrations as low as 10 ug/L are effective in controlling bacteria, while in complex organic media, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increases 2,000-fold to the 20 to 40 ug/mL concentration reported by Ricketts et al.9 Yin et al6 determined MICs for five clinically relevant bacteria in Mueller-Hinton broth, a complex organic growth medium. The MIC values ranged from 5 to 12.5 ug Ag/mL.
Lack of toxicity. Few reported cases of silver toxicity exist in the medical literature. This suggests a low mammalian cell toxicity. Although cases of silver sensitivity (allergic responses) have occurred, no other pathological conditions have been noted despite large exposures to silver in burn wound treatment.”

A Discussion of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent: Alleviating the Confusion
- David W. Brett, MS, BS

Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for centuries. Historically, SSD and silver nitrate have been the only choices in the medical arena but in recent years numerous silver-based antimicrobial agents have become available to the clinician. Relevant literature and practicing clinicians point to much confusion regarding the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent — confusion created by manufacturers and authors voicing different viewpoints. By addressing six particularly relevant factors regarding the properties of this intriguing element using data and opinions published in the peer-reviewed literature, independently generated data, and sound scientific principles, it is hoped that clinicians can start to work through some the confusion and become confident in their use of silver dressings. The ultimate goal is to provide the best level of patient care possible and to ensure that silver (an effective antimicrobial agent) is just as efficacious in future years as it is today." Ditto -Ed

Colloidal silver-enhanced ceramic water filter

Since 1998, Potters for Peace has been developing a low-tech, low-cost, colloidal silver-enhanced ceramic water filter; the Filtron. Field experience and clinical test results have shown this filter to effectively eliminate approximately 99.88% of most water born disease agents. The Filtron has been cited by the United Nations' Appropriate Technology Handbook, and is used by the International Red Cross and the Nobel Prize winning medical relief organization Doctors Without Borders. The ultimate objective of the Filtron project is to provide employment for local potters while meeting an urgent demand for safe water in rural and marginalized communities, particularly in the Third World.

Every day 5.000 children die due to unsanitary water, (WHO 2005). Since 1998 Potters for Peace has traveled the world teaching the fabrication of a low-cost ceramic water filter in these needy communitues to the local people, helping to bring clean, potable water to those who need it most.

The Potters for Peace Low-Cost Colloidal Silver Impregnated Ceramic Filter (PDF)

Potential of Silver Nanoparticle-Coated Polyurethane Foam As an Antibacterial Water Filter

" (Barraque, 2003). Several investigations have been carried out on the bactericidal effect of nanoparticles and their applications in the plastics, health, textile, and paint industry (Zuhuang, 2003; Chen and Chen, 2002; Lee et al., 2003; Fechner and Zimmer, 2003; Reimer and Fleischer, 1999). Pesticide removal from drinking water with the help of nanoparticles was reported in our previous work (Nair and Pradeep, 2004). The aim of this study is to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of the polyurethane foam coated with silver nanoparticles"

Link to report (PDF)

Headline: Nano Washing Machine Heading to UK
News source: Daily Mail, London by Sean Poulter via Small Times

If you're a stickler for cleanliness, it sounds like a dream invention, a washing machine that destroys bugs in the weekly laundry. Its designers at Samsung claim the technology will remove or kill 99.9 percent of odor-causing bacteria, including E.coli.

And they say the system will keep the clothes fresh for up to 30 days. Called the Silver Nano Health System, it works by bombarding clothing with jets of cold water primed with tiny silver ions. Users do not need to add hot water, bleach or other chemicals. As a result it saves energy and treats delicate items, such as lingerie, more gently, giving them a longer life.

Samsung product info



Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria.

Sondi I , Salopek-Sondi B .

Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia.

"The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against E. coli was investigated as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriological tests were performed in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems supplemented with different concentrations of nanosized silver particles. These particles were shown to be an effective bactericide. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used to study the biocidal action of this nanoscale material. The results confirmed that the treated E. coli cells were damaged, showing formation of "pits" in the cell wall of the bacteria, while the silver nanoparticles were found to accumulate in the bacterial membrane. A membrane with such a morphology exhibits a significant increase in permeability, resulting in death of the cell. These nontoxic nanomaterials, which can be prepared in a simple and cost-effective manner, may be suitable for the formulation of new types of bactericidal materials. " PMID: 15158396 [PubMed - indexed forMEDLINE]

Link to report PMID: 15158396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Medical, biocide research may open new markets for silver
By: Dorothy Kosich
Posted: '22-NOV-06 08:00' GMT © Mineweb 1997-2006

“Aspley estimated that over 700 types of pathogens have been documented to succumb to silver-based drugs. There are three distinct silver-based drugs, silver slats, silver proteins, and colloidal silver and silver hydrosol.

Biocides are chemicals capable of killing living organisms, and are more commonly known as antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, germicides and so on. Silver basically disables the food source required by bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and fungi to survive and reproduce.

Oligodynamic silver refers to the power of extremely small concentration of metal ions, such as silver, to exert potent biocidal actions. While it is non-toxic to people and animals, oligodynamic silver is lethal to viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and even cancer cells, according to Aspley. Basically, silver ions destroy bacteria, viruses and other germs by disrupting a germ’s membrane proteins, deactivating bacterial enzymes, and preventing bacteria from replicating.

Among the bacteria which find silver lethal are salmonella, staph infections, streptococcus, and typhoid. The viruses which can’t tolerate silver include Herpes, Influenza, and even the common cold. Uniform Picoscalar Oligodynamic Silver Hydrosol (UOPSH) can attack and kill HIV/AIDs because of the ability for the silver particles to bind to the glycoprotein knobs, which supply the AIDs virus with protein.

The non-profit, Washington State-based Immunogenic Research Foundation is interested in clinical research about silver’s potential to combat global epidemics and pandemics including cancer, hepatitis C, HIV, Lymes Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and drug-resistant super-germs.

In a paper published last month in the international scientific journal Current Science, a team of scientists lauded the properties of Silver-Water Dispersion solution as an effective antibiotic. Their study tested 19 different antibiotics against seven pathogens, including resistant superbugs.”

Antibacterial effect of nanosized silver colloidal solution on textile fabrics

H. J. Lee 1 , S. Y. Yeo 1 and S. H. Jeong 1

Department of Fiber & Polymer Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Abstract: This paper deals with the antibacterial efficacy of nanosized silver colloidal solution on the cellulosic and synthetic fabrics. Two kinds of Bacteria; Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were used. TEM observation of silver nanoparticles showed their shape, and size distribution. The particles were very small (2 - 5 nm) and had narrow distribution. SEM images of treated fabrics indicated silver nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surfaces of specimens. WAXS patterns did not show any peak of silver as the fabric had very small quantity of silver particles. However, ICP-MS informed the residual concentration of silver particles on fabrics before/after laundering. The antibacterial treatment of the textile fabrics was easily achieved by padding them with nanosized silver colloidal solution. The antibacterial efficacy of the fabrics was maintained after many times laundering.

Report link

Mega-electron-volt ion beam induced anisotropic plasmon resonance of silver nanocrystals in glass

FOM Institute for Atmin and Molecular Physics (AMOLF)


Anti-flu disinfectant for London transport?

publication date: 23 October 2006

Transport for London (TfL) is considering the use of anti-flu disinfectants on its trains. There are reported to be plans to use the product on main line and tube trains and stations. It is currently being introduced onto the Hong Kong metro system by MTR, a company which is part of a consortium bidding for two new rail franchises - London Rail and West Midlands

The disinfectant, called nano silver-titanium dioxide coating (NSTDC), is being monitored in Hong Kong and may be used as part of its bid for the new franchises. The special nano coating will be applied to all surfaces touched by the Hong Kong underground's daily 2.5 million commuters.

TfL says it is discussing plans for dealing with flu with government and says it is in touch with other metro companies, including that in Hong Kong.

OLED Materials - Examining the Use of Silver as an Alternative Material for OLED Devices by Nanomarkets
Silver as an Alternative Material to Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) for OLED Lighting

Why phones, keyboards and mice make me sick
Some new products can help keep the flu from spreading around your office

How to protect yourself

"Sure, you can clean your phone, desk, keyboard and mouse with disinfectant once in a while (don't spray anything directly on the keyboard -- use wipes), but you're likely to forget, and most disinfectant products are mildly toxic anyway. You can also buy special condoms for your cell phone, but people will talk.

"A better approach is to take advantage of a new and growing mini-industry of antimicrobial phones, keyboards and mice. Most of these new gadgets are coated with material that includes modified silver, which you'll see described as "nano sliver" or "silver ion."


(Combine the above pieces to browser window, don't ask us why, it breaks otherwise)

Novel transducer for potentiometric sensors. Polish Patent:
Dybko A., Chudy M., Wróblewski W., Wojciechowski K., Brzózka Z.
Novel transducer for potentiometric sensors
date of application 29.08.2001

“the transducer structure was electrochemically covered with a silver layer (30 um in thickness) and next a silver chloride was fabricated on the top of it”


Healing Chronic Infected Foot Wounds with Human Fibroblast-Derived Dermal Substitute and Silver Dressings


MRSA and the use of silver dressings: overcoming bacterial resistance

1. "Resistant bacteria, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are an ever-increasing global threat that has reached epidemic proportions and is extremely costly, both in terms of human suffering and the financial burden it places on healthcare systems.
2. The battle against bacterial resistance should focus on preventing the spread of contamination by reducing the risk of infection, educating both staff and patients in infection control, and improving standards of hygiene.
3. The problem of resistant bacteria has been exacerbated by the uncontrolled use of antibiotics, so a range of alternative measures are required to prevent the development of further resistance and manage infections. These include antibacterial preparations and dressings that contain silver. Continued via link."



Silver Pyjamas To Fight MRSA

“AN unlikely new weapon in the fight against deadly hospital infections is being tested at Newham University Hospital. Patient pyjamas made with a fabric containing threads of silver are expected to be introduced for 12 months as part of the hospital's attempts to eliminate MRSA. The trial, which is yet to be fully approved, will test the effectiveness of the so-called See it Safe fabric developed by Toray Textiles. The Nottinghamshire-based company claim tests have shown the fabric kills 99.9 per cent of harmful bacteria in under an hour. Consultant microbiologist Dr Peter Wilson, who heads the hospital's infection control team, approached Toray to offer the hospital as a site for the trial. Patients with MRSA will be asked for their permission to take part in tests. They will then be randomly allocated either the silver-lined pyjamas or identical bedwear made with standard fabric, and monitored during treatment. They will not know which pyjamas they are wearing.”

New Fabric Recognised To Kill MRSA
99.9% Eradication of Harmful Bacteria in Under One Hour

“Eighteen years of R&D lie behind the Toray fabrics which, through the presence of silver yarn, have been proven to eradicate 99.9% of over 800 micro-organisms in analyses conducted in accordance with the relevant standards and testing procedures. Toray Safe is proactive not reactive and, through ionisation of the silver atoms, effectively eliminates microbial activity and destroys all harmful entities.

Additional Noted Benefits
In addition to these high levels of anti-microbial activity, the silver yarn also provides several other associated benefits. As examples, odour producing bacteria are inhibited by the silver itself, while the silver ions combine with ammonia and denatured proteins to yield odour reduction.

As silver is the most electrically conductive element known, any electrical charges present as a result of non-conductive materials rubbing together are instantly dissipated. 'See it Safe' fabrics therefore remain free of all
electrical static. The resultant static-free area generated will not attract bacteria or skin squamae, which are potential carriers of harmful microbes.”

Silverlon Replaces Silver Sulfadiazine in Battlefield Burn Treatment

by: Adam Jay Doolittle

“Sulfadiazine, the burn cream against which all other burn dressings have been measured, according to the Shriner’s Burn Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio , is being replaced by the convenience of Silverlon fabric for treating burned U.S. soldiers on the battlefield.
Silverlon delivers bactericidal silver ions into burn wounds with the convenience of� paper towel. Its painless application and removal (no cream to be painfully wiped way when the wound has to be inspected) has made Silverlon the essential dressing arried by Army field medics in Iraq.
Silverlon dressings are immediately applied to resh wounds in the field to eradicate bacteria, providing full antibacterial protection to he injured soldier on his way to a field hospital. The warmth of this new fabric is equally important, for it keeps the wounded soldier warm on his long flight to receive attention at the primary treatment center at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.”

"What we had actually done was rediscovered the fact that silver killed bacteria, which had been known for centuries ... when antibiotics were discovered, clinical uses for silver as an antibiotic were discarded."

- Dr. Robert Becker (in reference to his silver and wound healing experiments),

"Speaking generally, the colloidal metals are especially remarkable for their beneficial action in infective states - blood poisoning by germs. This action has been shown to be due to their stimulating influence and to their destructive effects on microorganisms and their toxins as shown by the immediate fall of temperature, and the subsidence of the constitutional symptoms of intoxication."

- Dr. Leonard Keene Hirschberg, A.M., M.D. of John Hopkins.

» Materials Confused With Colloidal Silver

Note: The processes described below are used to create materials that can be categorized as colloidal. However the the resulting materials produced by these process in most cases are not validly colloidal by today's use of the term colloidal silver.

Even though a designation of colloidal was given to the resulting materials made by these processes in the past, in most cases that is no longer be an accurate designation. The unfortunate thing about some of these materials is that they can accurately meet the current definition of being in a colloidal state. This is where confusion can enter and illustrates how past and present confusions have occurred. For instance, silver salts and compounds can be in a colloidal state, but they are not pure silver in water and are completely different than only pure silver in water (pure colloidal silver e.g. hydrosol).

The main point is to illustrate why past confusion regarding what had been called silver occurred. Please see the previous chapters regarding what colloidal silver actually is for clarification.

General Colloidal Production Techniques

1. Dissolution Chemically created colloidal dispersions using a solvent. Solvent examples are gelatin, gum arabic, agar-agar, dextrins, starch, soap, bentonite in water. The process usually involves soaking and heating.

2. Mechanical This production is done using a "colloid Mill" this method is one of the old methods used and is no longer used with silver because the particle size is too large.

3. Electrical and Thermal The electro-colloidal process was first done by by Guyton-Morveau in 1809 with gold. The use of metallic wires precipitated into water using the Bredig apparatus was coined the "Bredig method".

4. Oxidation-reduction This process is the formation of sols by the use of reducing agents. This process has been used extensively to create gold sols / gold hydrosols. but not as often with silver sols. This process was used before colloids as a state of matter were known. Heat and reducing agents such as phosphorus were most commonly used. The preparation process may also involve hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, hydrazine and tannin which were used to create the hydrosol.

5. Double decomposition This production method uses double decomposition reactions to create sols. They fall into basically the following groups: oxide, sols, sulfide sols and salt sols. Hydrolysis focuses on pH as a focus and involves complicated chemical reactions by creating a base causing hydrolysis that creates a salt that can be either acid or alkaline. For example adding a small amount of a solution of a salt to boiling water. Another example is hydrous oxide is treated with with a small amount of acid or base or of a solution of a salt which is acidic or alkaline and is then dispersed. It is a complicated chemical process normally used to create salts & compounds.

6. Simple precipitation This process is a simple formula. When a solution of substance (A) in liquid (B) is poured into liquid (C) a sol generally arises, if (A) is insoluble in (C) and provided (B) and (C) are capable of being mixed in all proportions. Example: Sulfur dissolves in hydrazine hydrate forming a deep red stable solution, when poured into water the result is a clear bright yellow dispersion that is sensitive to carbon dioxide.

Types of Silver

Mild silver Protein: (MSP) This process chemically infuses or binds silver to a protein. The particles of these materials are often larger than a true colloid, and the protein is used to keep the particles in suspension. Parts per million vary from 20 PPM to 200 PPM and concentrations can be as high as 5000 PPM.

Powdered Silver: This production method was developed in Russia. It could be described as both a thermal and electrical process. A very high voltage is used to disintegrate" the silver, also known as water soluble silver.

Ground Silver: This process is just like it sounds. Silver is pulverized and mechanically ground into a fine powder. This process became obsolete in the 1920's, because it did not create a small enough silver particle.

Silver salts: Produced chemically or electrochemically, they are usually best categorized as compounds.

Below are some examples of silver compounds, and their historical or present uses.

Silver Sulfadiazine: Bactericidal and anti fungal uses, for decades it has been the standard treatment used in burn cases.

Silver Nitrate: Disinfectant used in podiatry, and placed in infants eyes at birth to prevent blindness. This material is the primary material erroneously equated as being colloidal silver especially in the past, up to the present.

Silver Iodine: Disinfectant

Silver chloride: Disinfectant

Silver Lactate: Astringent & antiseptic.

Silver oxide: Previously used for chorea & epilepsy

Silver picrate: Uses, moniliasis & trichomoniasis.

» Colloidal Silver Toxicology

The following information regarding toxicology is in relation to the general term "silver" and can be reviewed via the links below.

I have looked over the various authoritative sources of data in an attempt to discern a definitive consensus conclusion regarding the issue of toxicology as pertains specifically to colloidal silver. Using data provided by official government and/or other authoritative sources, after years of working toward that end, I repeatedly encounter the same problem.

The problem I encounter is the same one that has always plagued research regarding colloidal silver. It the absence or lack of clearly defined material properties. Specifically, most toxicity data if and when a correlation to colloidal silver is stated or implied, the majority of the time, such data lacks a precise description of the material properties, such as particle size, dispersion medium or even if there is a dispersion medium.

Without a concise material description, such as if the material is an aqueous solution derived from a powder, if the material is a hydrosol, if it is a mild silver protein, a silver salt, or if the dispersion medium is something other than water, the data is then incomplete. When there is a lack of any relevant specifics needed for concise accuracy, the question is; how can anyone consider such data to be complete? It is important to know exactly what the material is that is the subject of toxicology documentation.

It is also important to know how the material cited in toxicology documentation was manufactured.

When it is not clear if the data is in relation to a compound such as silver nitrate, or when any other relevant data is not precisely elucidated, then, at least in terms of ascertaining a concise data-set with regard to something as specific as colloidal silver, it calls into question not only the accuracy of that data, it calls into question the relevancy of such data.

In essence, it is quite clear to me that the same problem that I described in previous sections with regard to misapplication of the term colloidal, is of particular concern and applicability with regard to this topic.

I don't need to do your thinking for you in this regard, because you can review the various data sources directly yourself. There is plenty of information available regarding this topic, some of the most prominent sources are available via the links below.

Rather than having me or anyone else tell you what conclusions to draw, read the data carefully and decide for yourself what conclusions to draw from it.

Unfortunately not everyone favors independent thought and investigation. When colloidal silver is concerned, there is a small cadre of folks who seem particularly interested in shaping public opinion, who also believe, or at least want the public to believe, that colloidal silver is a risk without benefit. Biased is an understatement, such folks are not content to develop and share their beliefs rationally, rather they seem compelled to shape or seek to manipulate or legislate other's opinions to become in lockstep with theirs by questionable means.

If you have read the preceding sections it is difficult to imagine how only negatives and no benefit with regard to colloidal silver could be presented as the historical truth with a straight face.

People who do cite only negatives usually do so armed with sparse outdated data that supposedly represents themselves a medical or scientifically oriented authorities who claim to present their one-sided sole-negatively biased information as if it is a public service.

It is also true that there are those who take the position of touting only benefit or unsubstantiated benefit and no risk, as occurred in relation to events that instigated the FDA rulings in the late 1990s.

The truth of the matter is not found in defending an opinion or ideology. This is not a matter of opinion, and any attempt to present data that purports to be proof solely in either extreme should cause any rational person to be suspicious.

What is needed is balance and truth based on accurate and reliable information derived from sound, accurate, technically applicable, up to date and complete research.

Good luck!

Relevant Information & Links:

"Trace amounts of silver are in the bodies of all humans and animals. We normally take in between 70 and 88 micrograms of silver a day, half of that amount from our diet. Humans have evolved with efficient methods of dealing with that intake, however over 99 percent is readily excreted from the body."

"According to United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) "Silver levels of less than 0.000001 mg silver per cubic meter of air (mg/m³), 0.2-2.0 parts silver per billion parts water (ppb) in surface waters, such as lakes and rivers, and 0.20-0.30 parts silver per million parts soil (ppm) in soils are found from naturally occurring sources. Silver compounds are also found in groundwater and at hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Drinking water supplies in the United States have been found to contain silver levels of up to 80 ppb. Surveys show that one-tenth to one third of samples taken from drinking water supplies (both groundwater and surface water) contain silver at levels greater than 30 ppb."


The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that the concentration of silver in public drinking water supplies not exceed one milligram per liter of water, i.e. one part per million (1 ppm).

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that the concentration of silver in public drinking water supplies not exceed one milligram per liter of water, i.e. one part per million (1 ppm).

Workers in the United States are protected from excess silver exposure through regulations set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Silver in workplace air may not exceed .01 milligrams per cubic meter for an 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. This is the same standard recommended by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

ToxFAQs™ for Silver

“ Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
The EPA recommends that the concentration of silver in drinking water not exceed 0.10 milligrams per liter of water (0.10 mg/L) because of the skin discoloration that may occur.
The EPA requires that spills or accidental releases of 1,000 pounds or more of silver be reported to the EPA.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) limits silver in workplace air to 0.01 milligrams per cubic meter (0.01 mg/m³) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) also recommends that workplace air contain no more that 0.01 mg/m³ silver.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends that workplace air contain no more than 0.1 mg/m³ silver metal and 0.01 mg/m³ soluble silver compounds.
The federal recommendations have been updated as of July 1999.”

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: 1-888-42-ATSDR (1-888-422-8737)
FAX: (770)-488-4178

The EPA Reference Dose (RFD) for oral silver exposure is 5 micrograms/kg/d with a critical dose estimated at 14 micrograms/kg/d. This is used to calculate the dosage chart linked below. This is the amount that can be safely taken daily over a lifetime (70 years) without adverse affect.

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Silver (CASRN 7440-22-4)

-- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Public Health Statement for Silver

-- Silver Metal Material Safety Data Sheet (pdf format)

-- Chemistry: Web Elements Periodic Table: Silver

Toxicity Summary for SILVER

Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS)

Formal Toxicity Summary for SILVER

World Health Organization

Guidelines for drinking water quality (with regard to silver)

Extracted from: Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed.
Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996. pp. 338-343.

World Health Organization Guidelines for drinking water quality and silver consumption over a life-time via PDF only here.

Related Material:

A Discussion of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent: Alleviating the Confusion
- David W. Brett, MS, BS

Wound Care

Excerpted with permission from WOUNDS. Demling RH, DeSanti L. Effects of silver on wound management. WOUNDS 2001;13(1 Suppl A):1–15. * * *

Source Link

Antimicrobial mechanisms of action of silver

"Despite its long use, the bactericidal mechanisms of action of silver are not fully understood. Russell and Hugo have provided a comprehensive review [2] . Referred to as a 'general protoplasmic poison', ionic silver will interact with multiple target sites within the cell (Figure 1) .

Most of the sensitive sites are likely to be proteinaceous in nature and their alterations will result in structural and metabolic cell disruption. In addition to its bactericidal activities, silver is also fungicidal and virucidal. Its molecular mechanisms of fungicidal action are similar to those against bacteria with protein damage through sulfydryl group interactions. Its virucidal mechanisms of action involve alteration of viral protein, but also damage to the viral nucleic acid [18] ."

Molecular basis for resistance to silver cations in Salmonella

Amit Gupta, Kazuaki Matsui, Jeng-Fan Lo & Simon Silver Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, M/C 790, Room 703, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60612-7344, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Amit Gupta

Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds

FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Volume 27 Page 341 - June 2003
Interactions of Bacteria With Metals

"Silver compounds are used widely as effective antimicrobial agents to combat pathogens (bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms) in the clinic and for public health hygiene. Silver cations (Ag+) are microcidal at low concentrations and used to treat burns, wounds and ulcers. Ag is used to coat catheters to retard microbial biofilm development. Ag is used in hygiene products including face creams, 'alternative medicine' health supplements, supermarket products for washing vegetables, and water filtration cartridges. Ag is generally without adverse effects for humans, and argyria (irreversible discoloration of the skin resulting from subepithelial silver deposits) is rare and mostly of cosmetic concern."


Toxicological aspects of topical silver pharmaceuticals.



PMID: 8726163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver
Akhil Wadhera MD and Max Fung MD
Dermatology Online Journal 11 (1): 12
Department of Dermatology, University of California Davis

"Silver has an established history of preventing infection in burn wounds, and the development of novel silver-containing dressings has sparked a new interest in its use for wound management. Silver has many properties that make it suitable for this purpose. Combining silver with suitable dressings has been shown to decrease some of the unwanted effects associated with the broad-spectrum, non-specific antimicrobial properties of silver, such as toxicity and staining, while increasing the overall antimicrobial efficacy. The safe and effective use of silver dressings is critical to prevent the problem of emerging bacterial resistance, which arises when micro-organisms are in contact with a low (sub-inhibitory) concentration of silver. Most studies on the emergence of bacterial resistance to silver were not related to the use of silver in dressings. However, it could be important to survey silver resistance (or the lack of it) for such an application in situ , or to study the likelihood of the development of such resistance in vitro . The European Wound Management Association has developed practical advice on the use of topical antimicrobials [1] .

» Some Concluding Thoughts
We hope you have enjoyed this material and have found it to be thought provoking and inspirational. We know that it has sparked some rather interesting responses. What can we conclude with regard to the topic of colloidal silver? Perhaps a more apt approach to reaching a conclusion is to recognize that although the science involved is more than a century old, that from the standpoint of possibilities, this is just the beginning.

Over the course of many years of personal research, I reached a point where what others thought or what I previously believed as fact became a hindrance to me, so when I freed myself of such hindrances my creativity flourished.

My attempts to rely on existing orthodox scientific principles, was at times, more like being bound by shackles than tools to free my mind or keys to unlock life's mysteries. Particularly lacking among the most prevalent forms of accepted scientific and academic thinking is a dynamic that embraces life itself as a principle.

Instead of embracing life as a defining and causal principle, supposedly pure-science most-often fosters a mechanistic view of life's physics. Such an assumption represents an axiom as if it is fact, that confers to life the designation of being merely coincidental, as a non essential, if not an expendable component of physical reality.

A mechanistic approach may be mathematically benchmarked as applicable where purely-materialistic or virtual systems are concerned, but they fall short where dynamic cognitive-living-systems are concerned. This becomes most clear particularly when one moves beyond the false and linear world of ivory tower axiom based teaching, as is currently taught in universities today. True science, in truth, is not deductive!

Those who unshackle themselves from the enslavement of Euclidean Geometry, to embrace the truth of a universe that embodies Universal Physical Principles, rather than linear "falsely based axioms" will free their mind, and in so doing embrace the fact that there are truths that truly are knowable, provable and beyond the auspices of mere opinion, deduction and conjecture.

The path to such understanding is easily validated by those who seriously apply themselves, via the study of such notable figures as: Rieman, Fermat, Kepler, Gauss, and Vernadsky .

A proper starting point is to Pedagogically work through Gauss's: "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae." Introduced to humanity in, 1799.


Such study goes beyond the rectilinear-universe-thinking of ivory tower axioms that in essence attempts to conform reality to it's dictates, rather than demonstrating a working knowledge about reality.

Study of Gauss establishes irrefutably that Universal Physical Principles govern how the Universe operates. Moreover, that truth is not a matter of opinion only, and furthermore that truth is provable and knowable as; non-linear and multiply connected powers. Which then demonstrates to any and all who engage such study, that the universe is ordered by the intent of the Creator! Not by an arbitrary hodgepodge of linear axioms established supposedly as fact by a cadre of self aggrandizing self-serving so-called intellectuals!

A very one-sided approach has been accepted as status quo, which we think is in dire need of some serious rethinking.

Tolstoy said the following: " I know that most men, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven, thread by thread, into the fabric of their lives."

Currently theorems that are accepted as irrefutable fact, when challenged with the power of the knowledge of great minds past and present with evidence that proves, that what is commonly believed, is contrary to the truth, is usually rejected by those who place more value on something other than the truth.

The non entropy of creativity.

The rate that the population of humans on earth is growing and the rate that natural resources are being depleted or stressed, creates problems that need rapidly deployable solutions. There is a great need for creative unconventional solutions in virtually every area of endeavor that effects life on this planet.

What is now needed is speed. In order to employ solutions in a manner that outpaces the need for solutions, these solutions must impact our world magnitudes of orders more rapidly than in the past. In order to accomplish this feat, the methods currently employed must be recognized as being insufficient to fulfill such a task.

We must move beyond mere deductive, linear limited thinking if we are to make exponential strides in advancement. As they say, if you keep doing what you have always done, then you will keep getting what you have always gotten. We will add, that, this truth applies to humanity as well as the individual.

True science is not deductive in truth!

We must quickly move beyond irrational limits, false pretenses and erroneous axioms. The magnitude of problems besieging humanity calls forth great minds to create even greater solutions. After all, necessity, it is said, is the mother of invention.

In order to accomplish the feat of addressing the rapid onset of these problems effectively, and at a speed that outpaces future needs, it will require people of strong will to come to the fore of their own accord. Those with the courage, and the mind to do so, must not wait for others to confer upon them the authority to be creative or designate them as leaders.

In the course of taking action by one's own self-determination bestows a leadership role naturally. As we see it, in order to produce the needed solutions at a pace that not only meets, but exceeds the need of the increasing onset of problems humanity now faces as an accelerating phenomena, we must cut the fetters of the things that currently bind us, limit or prevent such strides from being taken.

For example, we unequivocally believe that we can no longer afford the hindrance created by the falseness of Euclidean Geometry and its flat rectilinear-universe, axiom-based attempt to have reality conform to its theorems. If one will make a full and honest inquiry into this matter, it becomes clear that it is a hindrance to creativity and by design fosters maintaining status quo to the benefit of a few to the detriment of the rest of humanity.

Therefore, we must first recognize and identify what is false, erroneous and contrary to reality about this system of thought, in order to correct the fundamental errors that will otherwise hinder the potential of exponential advancement.

The process of abandoning Euclidian Geometry can only occur when one works through real-world pedagogical exercises that one recognizes as the truth, within the recesses of ones own mind via personal experience. Then not only can solutions be found that exceed the expectations of the associated limitations of the past, but it is then possible to apply and easily validate that there are in fact improvements. Positive effects of improved and implemented solutions can be witnessed and quantified by measuring such things as whether or not there is an increase in the 'real world', per capita, per square kilometer, life condition of the average person.

Other, sometimes less tangible but important means of validating whether or not the introduction of solutions are actually working, would be to measure increases in such things as the level of faith that the average person has that their life will continue to improve, that their level of happiness will continue to increase and that their freedom of the pursuit thereof will remain unhindered.

Should the world achieve vast rapidly deployed solutions to its various problems that are effective in a manner that outpaces the onset of humanity's current and immediate future challenges, then systems of measurement and validation would not be among our primary concerns, we would be too busy enjoying life to bother.

Sound too lofty? Perhaps, but only if one assumes the weight of the world on their shoulders alone, or if one accepts that the only possible hope is the catastrophe of submission to entropy. We will simply focus on doing our part in our own way, at a time and in a manner of our own choosing. We simply hope that others will do the same by their own choosing. The more the merrier.

In order to embrace a truthful system from which to launch improved scientific discoveries and solutions, a system is needed that recognizes a universe that is based on Universal Physical Principles, rather than linear falsely based axioms.

In order for this to occur, a viable replacement for the old erroneous system, is needed that is not forced, but accepted as an improved system of our own volition, by cognitively recognizing the new system as superior as evidenced by practical first-hand pedagogical experience and application. Freedom of thought, speech, deed, the truth and the pursuit of happiness is then best served. Then advancement can move beyond the current limits at a rate and amplitude that is magnitudes of orders more powerful than can currently be accomplished under the constraints of current linear limitations.

We can show you the door to such lines of thought, but you are the one who must choose to enter. The path to such understanding in not easily found in the matrix of currently established dogma, such as is often found within the halls of so-called higher-learning. In our experience, one can only get there from within the cognitive recesses of your own mind, in the form of actual experiences of learning that coincide with reality.

As they say, the mind is a terrible thing to waste. It is your life, your mind, your world and your choice to choose the course you will take. As we said, we can only point the way.

In order for humanity to truly make strides toward advancement in science that can break free from past false assumptions, we will not only need to abandon false axioms such as the idea of empty space as a vacuum, but we most revisit our view of space, energy and matter in a fundamental manner. There is no avoiding the adoption of a new periodic system of the universe.

The study of colloidal systems relates to the essence of matter and the fabric of life itself. Therefore it should come as no surprise that advances in this field of endeavor are already profoundly benefiting and positively impacting humanity, even if most people are not aware as such. We already see the seeds of future progress sprouting in our and others work. We know that it is virtually certain that future advances will bring benefits in unanticipated ways. The world could use more pleasant surprises, don't you agree?

» The End